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East African partners undertook efforts to develop and expand regional cooperation mechanisms to interdict terrorist travel and other illicit activities. BH attacks did not appear to discriminate between civilians and government officials, whereas ISIS-WA tended generally to focus on government and security forces, while trying to cultivate stronger ties with local communities, including by providing limited social services. The United States continued to provide advisors, intelligence, training, logistical support, and equipment to Lake Chad region countries and supported a wide range of stabilization efforts, such as defection, demobilization, disengagement, de-radicalization, and reintegration programming.
Continued attacks by BH and ISIS-WA have taken a heavy toll on the civilian population, especially in northeast Nigeria where attacks have displaced more than two million people and left roughly 7. The number of attacks nearly doubled in from previous years. Partner countries remain strong willed against terrorism but lack the means to contain or degrade the threat on a sustained basis. Mali has been unable to regain control of northern and central parts of the country. Burkina Faso also experienced increased terrorism in the northern and eastern parts of the country.
Terrorist activities increased in southern Africa. Four individuals were charged, including two with terrorist connections. Also in South Africa, incendiary devices were planted in the Durban area on multiple occasions. Neighboring Mozambique was subjected to repeat terrorist attacks of increasing sophistication in the northern province of Cabo Delgado. The attacks resulted in at least civilian deaths and reportedly the internal displacement of several thousand people. TSCTP has built capacity and cooperation despite setbacks caused by a restive political climate, terrorism, ethnic rebellions, and extra-constitutional actions that interrupted work and progress with select partner countries. Regional cooperation, a strategic objective of U. The United States added four Sahel states to the Counterterrorism Partnerships Fund in — Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Senegal — which provided comprehensive assistance to targeted partners.
This funding is also complementary to TSCTP efforts and seeks to produce tangible results in a range of counterterrorism-related fields. Through PREACT, the United States supports joint training exercises for Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ugandan first responders and law enforcement professionals as part of a broader effort to encourage regional coordination and cooperation, protect shared borders, and respond to terrorist incidents responsibly and effectively.
Mozambique joined PREACT in , enabling its participation in regional trainings to address increased threats in the northern border region with Tanzania. Terrorist groups used intimidation tactics in the region, exploiting weak governance, poverty, and chronic food insecurity. The Burkinabe government conducted counterterrorism operations and increased its capacity to respond to and thwart terrorist attacks following the March 2 JNIM attack in Ouagadougou.
Human Rights Watch documented numerous allegations of human rights violations by Burkinabe security forces in counterterrorism operations, particularly in the north of the country. The Burkinabe government is investigating these allegations. In , bilateral and regional cooperation increased. Embassy Ouagadougou completed improvements to the Loumbila peacekeeping center and delivered Puma armored personnel carriers for training. IED attacks continued to target defense and security forces in the Nord and Sahel regions, and spread to the Est region.
JNIM claimed responsibility for the attack, which killed six soldiers and two gendarmes, and wounded 80 others. On August 11, five police officers and one civilian died after their convoy struck an IED in the Est region. Larger groups of as many as 30 perpetrators conducted raids on security outposts in the Sahel region, such as during an October 3 attack on the Inata Gendarmerie that left one Burkinabe dead and another wounded. On October 18, perpetrators assaulted the Djibo Gendarmerie with rocket-propelled grenades, wounding one gendarme and releasing 55 detainees. Legislation, Law Enforcement, and Border Security: Burkina Faso made no significant changes to its counterterrorism legal framework in The SIU killed three suspected terrorists, captured one suspected terrorist, and recovered weapons, ammunition, explosive making materials, and Burkinabe and French military uniforms.
The SIU also demonstrated an increased terror response capability by intervening quickly and effectively during the March 2 attack in Ouagadougou at the Burkinabe military headquarters and French Embassy. Burkinabe security and law enforcement officials cited border security as a major area of concern, but continued to face significant resource constraints in confronting the issue. There were approximately 80 open judicial investigations linked to terrorist attacks committed against civilians and security forces, which comprised about individual defendants. Countering Violent Extremism: Burkina Faso remains actively engaged in countering violent extremism.
In , BH carried out sporadic attacks in the Far North Region and rarely confronted security forces as it had in The group targeted civilians in villages on the western border with Nigeria and largely focused on kidnappings, arson, raids, and targeted killings. BH carried out relatively few suicide bombings compared with In , ISIS-WA for the most part continued to avoid indiscriminate attacks on the populations, such as those carried out by BH, but also began collecting illicit taxes from cattle herders and fishermen. The government announced the creation of a center in Meme in the Far North Region for the rehabilitation and reintegration of former BH recruits.
The government has selected a site but construction has not yet begun. Countering terrorist threats remained a top security priority for the Cameroonian government, which continued to work with the United States to improve the capacity of its security forces. Despite a marked decrease in suicide bombings, the group launched numerous attacks, including targeted killings, abductions, ambushes, arson, and raids in search of supplies.
Notable attacks in the Far North Region in included the following:. Cameroon prosecuted numerous BH-affiliated defendants for terrorism-related crimes, primarily in the military tribunal in Maroua. Many defendants were acquitted because of lack of evidence. Others are serving prison sentences or awaiting trial. Deficits in civilian-military coordination contributed to a low conviction rate. Cameroon prosecutes suspected terrorists pursuant to its anti-terrorism law, which provides exclusive jurisdiction to military tribunals, prolongs investigative detention periods, and provides for the death penalty.
Cameroonian courts have sentenced many BH defendants to death, but none has been executed to date. Cameroon continued to use the anti-terrorism law to suppress criticism and freedom of expression by arresting journalists and activists in connection with the ongoing crisis in the Anglophone regions. The government released low-level detainees arrested on suspicion of being Anglophone separatists and facing misdemeanor charges. However, hundreds of others remain in detention. The government continued to characterize people espousing separatism for the Anglophone regions as terrorists. Cameroon continued to screen arriving and departing travelers at international airports and other points of entry using PISCES.
Countering the Financing of Terrorism: There were no changes in The NDDRC, working with international partners, particularly the UN, will disarm former fighters and reintegrate them into civilian life. According to a presidential decree, the NDDRC will destroy surrendered weapons and provide home communities with multifaceted assistance to facilitate the reintegration of ex-fighters. The three-year project, which targets , people in Cameroon, focuses on ensuring stability and consolidating peace through reconciliation, reintegration, and prevention of terrorism.
They worked with local organizations that relayed these highly contextualized messages to BH affiliates, and promoted reintegration of former fighters who renounced terrorism. Cameroon was part of a regional initiative organized by the UN and the AU to develop coordinated strategies for screening, prosecuting, and rehabilitating individuals associated with BH. Overview: Chad continued to prioritize counterterrorism efforts despite ongoing financial woes that affected its ability to meet even basic financial commitments, such as paying police and military salaries. Although financial hardships limited its ability to provide external counterterrorism assistance, Chad played a strong role in military operations in neighboring countries.
Legislation, Law Enforcement, and Border Security: Under the Suppression of Acts of Terrorism law , penalties for terrorist offenses increased and can include capital punishment. Some civil society organizations expressed concern that the law was overly general, and could be used to target activists and government critics to curtail freedoms of expression and association. Law enforcement leadership publicly affirmed the requirement for all law enforcement officers to respect human rights.
There were fewer reports in of arbitrary extrajudicial actions by the government or its agents. The Government of Chad continued its active participation in anti-terrorism training courses in , including joint border security training with Cameroon. Chadian National Police continued to seek U. The Director General of the National Police improved its performance by fostering more efficient and effective communication across bureau lines and through cooperation with the U. The Chadian government continued to maintain a heightened level of security at border crossings to prevent infiltration by members of BH, ISIS-WA, and Central African militias, and to stem the transit of illegal arms and other contraband.
Border patrols comprised border security officials, gendarmes, police, and soldiers. Countering the Financing of Terrorism: There were no significant changes in Countering Violent Extremism: Most U. These activities expanded access to information, strengthened engagement, and increased dialogue to combat violent extremism. Additional CVE funding from the Department of State complemented these efforts to strengthen the broadcast capacity of community radio stations and improve civics education through the re-editing of a civics textbook.
Four defectors from BH who surrendered to Chadian authorities reported that radio broadcasts describing lenient government policies were a contributing factor to their return. The region is strikingly under-served by all levels of governance and is the only part of Chad where BH is present. Overview: According to the UN, there are more than armed groups operating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo DRC , yet historically, the DRC has not acknowledged the presence of terrorist organizations in its territory. The international community has generally not referred to these armed groups as terrorists. The ADF originated as a Ugandan rebel group but has been present in Beni for years, recruiting fighters from around the region.
In November , the U. Embassy in Kinshasa closed to the public for six days in response to a credible terrorist threat against U. The DRC shares approximately 6, miles of land and lake borders with nine countries and lacks the capacity to effectively patrol its borders. Overview: Djibouti remained a vital platform for regional counterterrorism and CVE efforts in As in previous years, Djiboutian government officials, particularly law enforcement officials and members of the High Islamic Council, worked closely to detect and address terrorist activity. On December 16, Djiboutian security forces participated in activities leading to the capture in Djibouti of Peter Cherif, a suspect wanted in France in connection with the Charlie Hebdo attacks.
Legislation, Law Enforcement, and Border Security: Djibouti has a legal framework for prosecuting terrorism-related crimes and can try terrorists in criminal courts using its penal code. In , the Ministry of Justice created a national committee of experts to begin work on a national strategy to combat terrorism. The government continued to use counterterrorism legislation to suppress criticism by detaining and prosecuting opposition figures and other activists. The Government of Djibouti plans to begin criminal proceedings in According to government officials, lack of judiciary cooperation with neighboring Somaliland contributed to delays in the investigation. Djiboutian law enforcement entities continued to prioritize counterterrorism efforts.
Djibouti maintained a system of checkpoints and conducted cordon-and-search operations within the capital, Djibouti City, and concentrated security forces at border control points to screen for potential security threats. Government officials enhanced protection of soft targets, including hotels and grocery stores, measures first implemented after the May al-Shabaab attack in Djibouti City. Djiboutian law enforcement also continued to extend vehicle searches throughout the capital in an effort coordinated through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. ATA assistance focused primarily on building technical capacity for improved crisis response and border security. The program aims to improve the ability of airport security staff to identify and react to potential terrorist threats.
Djiboutian law enforcement personnel acknowledged the difficulty of securing their land and sea borders. While the airport and seaport remain important entry points, the vast majority of travelers cross into Djibouti by land at three border points, one of which is the Loyada crossing at the Somali border, which was upgraded with U.
The SRF, which was previously housed in the Central Bank of Djibouti, moved into separate offices and began operating independently of the Central Bank, although they still share a budget. The SRF increased its staffing and training, expanding its core functions and improving its ability to supervise, coordinate, and investigate money laundering and terrorist financing matters. The SRF referred several cases of money laundering to law enforcement authorities.
The forum focused on promoting preventive techniques to combat violent extremism at the community level. Djibouti hosts the Intergovernmental Authority on Development headquarters. As a matter of practice, police refused to meet with security officials from western nations to discuss policy matters, although the United States had informal contacts with some law enforcement counterparts in There are no fully functioning immigration offices at border checkpoints to facilitate travel of third country nationals.
Eritrean authorities maintain a presence at the border crossing points to check identification cards, but passports and visas are not required, nor is there meaningful customs screening or inspection. It is not clear how long this procedure will remain in effect. The Eritrean government continues to require all citizens to obtain an exit visa prior to airport departure.
Eritrea has poor internet capacity, which makes use of the INTERPOL databases and biometric screening and information sharing at ports of entry problematic. Ethiopia removed three domestic groups from its list of designated terrorist organizations, allowing the government to focus additional counterterrorism resources on al-Shabaab. There were no reports of new terrorism-related convictions in At the beginning of , the Government of Ethiopia systematically reviewed and released more than 20, prisoners arrested for politically motivated reasons under the ATP. On July 5, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed removed three domestic groups from its list of designated terrorist organizations — the Oromo Liberation Front, Ogaden National Liberation Front, and Patriotic Ginbot-7 — and invited them to return to Ethiopia openly and join the political life of the country.
In June , the Attorney General established a Legal and Justice Affairs Advisory Council Advisory Council composed of independent legal professionals and scholars and charged with reforming the legal and justice system. The Advisory Council is tasked with amending the ATP in line with the broader opening of political space in the country. The U. Embassy in Addis Ababa is working with the Government of Ethiopia to codify criminal investigative cooperation authorities between the U. The EFP and intelligence services now report to the newly created Minister of Peace, which intends to help coordinate and streamline counterterrorism efforts, among a range of other duties.
Border security was a persistent concern for Ethiopia. The Ethiopian government values CVE and has focused on development that addresses root causes of poverty, which it assesses to be a driver of terrorism. The Ethiopian government engaged in local mediation and conflict mitigation strategies to defuse ethnic and religious tensions, especially in the Oromia and Somali regions. The government also monitored violent activities and remained concerned about the prospect of terrorist radicalization and recruitment, particularly among the large Muslim youth population, and because of the significant economic migration of Ethiopians to the Middle East.
Some returning economic migrants have been radicalized. Ethiopia also supported counterterrorism efforts in Somalia with the Somali National Army and other regional security initiatives. Ethiopia is chair of the Djibouti-based Intergovernmental Authority on Development IGAD and participated in its counterterrorism programs and trainings, including the IGAD Security Sector Program, which builds regional capacity to mitigate, detect, and deter terrorist activity. However, Kenya saw a decrease in fatalities from al-Shabaab attacks in owing to fewer indiscriminate attacks on civilians. Although al-Shabaab has shifted the focus of its attacks to security forces personnel and infrastructure, attacks targeting civilians still occur.
The rest of the country remains vulnerable to attacks by terrorist groups. Kenya is a willing U. Security services responded to numerous terrorist incidents, while also disrupting al-Shabaab and ISIS attack planning, recruitment, and travel. Reports of human rights violations by security forces during counterterrorism operations continued, including allegations of extra-judicial killings, disappearances, and torture. Terrorist incidents included the following:. In January, the High Court overturned five convictions for attempted terrorist travel to Somalia, as the government did not follow legal procedures for designating Somalia as a prohibited destination.
The government has yet to fund a public defender service, which is critical to the success of its National Legal Aid Action Plan. Access to defense counsel for terrorism suspects is limited. The ODPP also began developing a uniform and consistent nationwide policy on plea negotiations. The effective use of plea agreements could allow for the inclusion of information and evidence provided by cooperating defendants to prosecute higher-level terrorism suspects. Trials in terrorism cases often proceeded slowly. At the end of , trials continued for four Kenyans accused of providing support for the Westgate Mall attack and four Kenyans and one Tanzanian in connection with the Garissa University attack.
Uneven coordination, resource constraints, insufficient training, corruption, and unclear command and control hindered effectiveness throughout the year. Kenyan officials continued efforts to draft a coordinated interagency border control strategy. A June agreement will provide Kenya with the U. Kenya established interagency Joint Operations Centers at several points of entry and border crossings to promote information sharing.
Immigration officers employed government watchlists. Watchlist screening and basic equipment at smaller ports of entry were generally lacking. Kenyan security services also detected and deterred terrorist plots and responded to dozens of terrorism-related incidents. For example, in February, five al-Shabaab members with plans to attack Nairobi and armed with rifles, grenades, and a car bomb were interdicted by police five hours north of the city.
The Kenyan government or its agents continued to face allegations of committing arbitrary and unlawful killings, particularly of known or suspected criminals, including terrorists. The Kenyan government cooperated with the United States regarding threat information and security at the U. Embassy in Nairobi, including through a dedicated General Service Unit counterterrorism response team funded by U. Kenya last underwent a FATF mutual evaluation in Police in Nairobi, and coastal and northeastern counties participated in community engagement training, dialogues on post-traumatic stress, and early warning and response programs.
Prison officials improved their handling of terrorist offenders, and judicial officials are working to improve their approach to managing remand prisoners through plea bargaining and other methods. Small-scale efforts to rehabilitate and reintegrate former terrorists, facilitators, and sympathizers continued, but these lacked a clear legal framework and supportive public messaging. Although not a member, Kenya frequently participated in regional meetings of the GCTF and hosted a GCTF workshop on the nexus between transnational organized crime and terrorism in February.
Little progress in the implementation of the June peace accord between the Government of Mali and two coalitions of armed groups continued to hamper the return of public services and security to the north and parts of the center. Terrorist groups increased their attacks on all accord signatories, including former rebel groups with whom they had briefly allied. Terrorism, insecurity, and lack of accountability or effective governance resulted in a significant increase in intercommunal violence, particularly in central Mali.
The conflict area has moved farther south than at any time since the triple crisis of the political insurgency, military coup, and terrorist assault on the country. Security in the center of the country rapidly deteriorated in Terrorists took advantage of long-standing intercommunal and ethnic tensions to significantly increase violence against civilians. Mali was very cooperative in working with the United States to prevent acts of terrorism against U. Domestic and international security forces believed most, if not all of these groups, were coordinating their efforts. MINUSMA maintained its northern presence in , and continued its work with the Malian government and various militia groups to facilitate redeployment of government administrators and security forces to the north.
Human Rights Watch documented numerous allegations of human rights violations by Malian security forces in counterterrorism operations, particularly in the center of the country. The government detained people on terrorism-related charges. Ten terrorism cases were tried in the Bamako Appeals Court. Four individuals were convicted and received sentences ranging from 10 years to life imprisonment. The unit had immediate impact, supporting current gendarme posts, intervening in an armed robbery, and arresting suspected terrorists. In Bamako, the next phase of training began with the creation of an additional man team with the GSIGN at the new Department of State-funded training academy. The Malian armed forces under the Ministry of Defense MOD remained the primary entities responsible for securing Mali against terrorist threats.
The PJS consists of magistrates overseeing the judicial process and development of a case, while the BIS is made up of investigators who develop case files in consultation with or under the direction of an investigative judge. Combined counterterrorism missions involving law enforcement and military units lacked delineation and coordination. Press reported that Malian security forces dismantled a terrorist cell comprising two Burkinabes, an Ivoirian, and a Malian on December 6.
The cell was preparing attacks in Ouagadougou, Bamako, and Abidjan during the end-of-year festive period, according to press reports. Customs officials under the Ministry of Economy and Finance monitor the flow of goods and enforce customs laws at borders and ports of entry. Exit and entry stamps used by border officials have inconsistent size and shape, undermining efforts to authenticate travel documents. Malian passports, including diplomatic and official versions, incorporate security measures including micro-printing, ultraviolet features and a full-color digital photo. Unfortunately, imposters can obtain fraudulent documents, such as birth and marriage certificates, with relative ease.
Countering Violent Extremism: The Ministry of Religious Affairs is responsible for developing and monitoring the national strategy for the prevention of radicalization and terrorism, as well as working with the High Islamic Council and other religious associations to promote moderate Islam and maintain a secular state. The Malian military participated in multinational border security operations under the G-5 Sahel mandate. Since , when U.
The statement mentioned Mauritania and defined the Islamic Maghreb to include Mauritania. After an August 10 incident involving drug traffickers in the northeast of Mauritania, the Mauritanian army sent more troops to reinforce its presence along the Malian border. It remains unclear to what extent the individuals arrested for trafficking were supporting or financing terrorist groups through their illicit activity.
On February 27, the Nouakchott Criminal Court sentenced 11 suspects to prison on terrorism-related charges for periods ranging from five to 10 years. The individuals were convicted for forming an ISIS-affiliated cell and planning to carry out acts of terror aimed at disrupting the Arab League Summit Mauritania hosted in The government continued its counterterrorism cooperation with the United States in and welcomed opportunities to participate in U.
Through support from the United States and other counterterrorism partners, such as France, Mauritania deployed 20, soldiers across the country, divided across seven military zones. Despite these efforts, regions in the interior of Mauritania remained imperfectly monitored, owing to their geographic isolation from population centers and inhospitable desert conditions. MIATE also continued to collaborate with independent Islamic religious groups to counter radicalization to violence across all 15 provinces. Mauritania will be responsible for the western sector of the G-5 Sahel Joint Force located along the border between Mauritania and Mali. On October 15, the Nouakchott-based G-5 Sahel Defense Academy officially welcomed its first class of 37 mid-career officers from the five Sahel countries, whose training will last for nine months.
The training will focus on organizing operations and carrying out combat missions, particularly in the fragile border regions linking the five countries. On December 6, Mauritania hosted the first G-5 Sahel donor coordination conference in Nouakchott, aimed at raising funds to support development activities to counter the extreme poverty-insecurity nexus that allows terrorist activity to flourish.
These attacks have led to at least civilian deaths and the reported internal displacement of several thousand citizens. In , the terrorist group shifted its focus to small, remote villages in an effort to minimize direct conflict with government security forces. The attacks varied in intensity and scale, but generally included the use of firearms, edged weapons e. These attacks frequently included beheadings and kidnappings. The law adds articles to the penal code that provides for the punishment of anyone committing, planning, or participating in terrorist acts, as well as for those who provide or receive training for terrorist purposes.
It also stipulates punishment for individuals who travel or attempt to travel to join a terrorist organization, as well as those who facilitate such travel. An ongoing counterterrorism trial of more than defendants — held in an improvised court in Cabo Delgado and closed to the media — is seen as the first test of the new law. Many of these defendants were later acquitted. Mozambique lacks a counterterrorism strategy or national action plan, and as a result, the response to terrorist threats has been primarily focused on security and ad hoc.
The government reports that in its operations in Cabo Delgado, military units and elements of the national police coordinate through a joint headquarters that de-conflicts government interventions and facilitates the transfer of detainees to police control. A more formalized working group is in development, which would provide more consistent and comprehensive information sharing. Mozambique identified border security as a significant challenge, including the need to enhance security screening at official land border posts, particularly with Tanzania, to increase its ability to deter illegal overland or maritime entry through unofficial border-crossing points.
Weak border controls facilitate the entry into Mozambique of East African individuals linked to terrorist organizations, laying the groundwork for the current insurgency. In , the International Organization for Migration provided assistance and capacity building in integrated border management at key air and land border points in the southern region of the country. Through ARINSA, Mozambique affords its investigators and prosecutors the opportunity to share information with other members to identify, track, and potentially seize criminal assets.
Mozambique is focused on the problem — specifically in Cabo Delgado — and is developing a multi-sectoral approach to address the drivers of terrorist radicalization. The security situation and remote location of Cabo Delgado presents challenges in interagency cooperation, communications, intelligence, and general capacity. Civil society and religious organizations are planning several programs to assist in identifying and addressing the drivers of terrorist radicalization through research and capacity-building activities that will begin after Mozambique is developing a relationship with the Intergovernmental Authority of Development and has security cooperation memoranda of understanding with Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. Mozambique is reportedly coordinating its counterterrorism operations with Tanzanian counterparts in some cases.
Overview: The Government of Niger cooperated with its neighbors and international partners on counterterrorism. Terrorist organizations recruited from border populations with low access to government services and high levels of poverty. At the same time a large portion of our identity often comes from an idealized sense of our work. Witness the notion of being a cowboy. This is a real job for a small number of people, but it is an identity for many. In the same way, there is an identity in being a truck driver, an insurance adjuster, etc. If that is taken away from people it can, in the worst case, lead to populist political movements. I answered that the general trend will be positive, but I expect that it is not a simple path to better lives through the application of IT.
There are many social and eventually political issues that will be played out. Convergence of virtual reality and immersive devices will modify the rules determining how we interact with each other and with knowledge and information in the future. We will need to be conscious of the distinction between game and play, to allow for leisure time away from rule-bound game-as-the-new-work. This will be particularly necessary for environmental issues to be solved creatively. Coding literacy will become part of K curricula to prepare citizens for both STEM-related careers and consumer-oriented DIY solutions of tech problems.
Already acquainted with basic and intermediate home maintenance of basic lighting, plumbing and painting, the handyman 2. The handyman 2. For those unable or uninterested in being a handyman 2. This industry — with public and private certifications — will employ hundreds of thousands of laborers and enjoy revenues in the billions. Done right, it will expand opportunity for many, too. The internet will mostly be used to enhance communication, coordination and collaboration. This was somewhat true for the majority, but dramatically untrue for many minorities.
We may have the opportunity to provide this societal benevolence for everyone in our society. The technological, often digital, tools we are creating have the promise of greatly increasing the resources available in society. While it may be possible to automate some current jobs, people have an intrinsic need for meaningful work. If we can use these new resources to support them, many jobs can be created to provide meaningful work for many people, and to improve the environment for everyone in society.
Some examples of such jobs are child and elder care, and creation and maintenance of green spaces ranging from urban parks to rural farms to wilderness environments and many others. A national service requirement for young people gets certain kinds of work done, but also provides training in practical skills and practical responsibility, and also exposes individuals to the diversity of our society. Technological change produces resources that allow new things to be done and reduces certain constraints on what can be done. But we need to learn which goals we should pursue. Whether individual members of such groups feel their lives have been improved or made worse will vary depending on many factors. Suffice it to say that public support of some kind to give displaced workers the means to live in relative security and comfort is essential.
Moreover, this support must be provided in a way that preserves self-respect and promotes optimism and ambition. A world of former workers who perceive themselves as having been prematurely retired while machines provide the goods and services they once supplied seems to me highly unstable. To be happy, or at least contented, people need a purpose beyond simply amusing themselves and passing time pleasantly. One of the major functions of the internet in may be to facilitate contact between people with skills who want to work and jobs that still need doing in spite of high-tech robots and ubiquitous AI. Diseases will be cured with machine learning, profits will rise with automation and artists, engineers and scientists will be able to do more with less time and resources than ever before.
Will society take steps to adapt its social standards? Will education adapt to prepare each generation for the reality ahead rather than focusing on the past? That depends on politics. If wealth concentration is accelerated by automation, the average person could be worse off. Digital technology will be used to counter some of the stresses created by economic development and a digital culture. Digital avatars, for example, might provide intelligent company for the old and lonely, coaching those subject to psychological disorders, encouraging and guiding the sedentary to adopt healthier lifestyles, and so on.
But changes and societal stresses brought by digital technologies may require a fundamental overhaul of the social contract. A new digital social contract will likely be needed, the specifics of which we cannot be sure now, but the contours of which we see suggested today in proposals ranging from universal basic income to institutionally mandated time free from digital distraction. The hope is that political processes allow our social arrangements to adjust at a pace commensurate with broader technological change, and that dysfunction in political processes is not aggravated by digital technologies. It has been commented that when humankind attempts to take astronauts to Mars the primary challenge will not be technological. Instead, it will be social: namely, the ability of unrelated individuals to live in close confinement for long periods of time.
At the level of entire polities, in a similar way, our primary challenge may be living together in civil ways, attending to the full range of human needs, while the technology brings opportunities to carry us forward, or carry us off course. What will it mean to not have to remember, that you can recall the video with higher fidelity than one could ever remember? This will disrupt social norms.
Communities specified by degrees of anonymity and other variable social norms. AI and IT information technology can define, enforce and update norms at scale and quickly…. Non-locality of communities. We already see this today with the various groups — mailing lists, conference calls, website, hashtags, etc. This might impact happiness; if everyone physically around you is a stranger not in one of your communities , what will that mean for the physiological aspects of happiness — touch, smell, tastes, complex sounds and sights? At a technical level, the RF radio frequency signature of [an] individual will become increasingly important as the wired last mile disappears.
There will be secure vote-by-internet capabilities, through credit card or passport verification, with other secure kiosks available at public facilities police stations, libraries, fire stations and post offices, should those continue to exist in their current form. There will be a movement online to require real-name verification to comment on more reputable sites; however, this will skew participation tremendously toward men, and the requirements will be reversed after a woman is assaulted or killed based on what she typed in a public-interest discussion.
This has profound psychological implications about what people assume as normal and establishes baseline expectations for access, response times and personalization of functions and information. Contrary to many concerns, as technology becomes more sophisticated, it will ultimately support the primary human drives of social connectedness and agency. As we have seen with social media, first adoption is noncritical — it is a shiny penny for exploration. Then people start making judgments about the value-add based on their own goals and technology companies adapt by designing for more value to the user — we see that now in privacy settings and the concerns about information quality….
Expecting it to be better means we look for the strengths and what works and work toward that goal. Technology gives individuals more control — a fundamental human need and a prerequisite to participatory citizenship and collective agency. The danger is that we are so distracted by technology that we forget that digital life is an extension of the offline world and demands the same critical, moral and ethical thinking. Only the very poor who cannot afford technology and the very rich who can choose to separate themselves from it will be free from connectedness. When I consider the current AI conversation, I often think the real evolution of sentient beings will be a hybrid connectedness between human and machine. Our very existence and day-to-day experience will be through an augmented experience that features faster thinking and more ethereal pleasures.
This brings a question of what is human? Since most of us will be living in a machine-enhanced world, the perspective of human reality will always be in doubt. Most will simply move through their existence without a thought, able to change and alter it with new software packages and algorithms, accepting their reality as the new normal. Indeed, perception will become reality.
For though the cultural implications will be significant, the internet of offers the world a much more prosperous and easier life. Most will choose comfort over independence from devices. Parents will face a choice about knowing too much about every single aspect of what their child does and says be it with them or without them or not knowing all the details — while being aware that someone else teachers, doctors, law enforcement is compiling this information for later determinations of some kind about their child. Parents will ultimately be encouraged to automate this data-intensive parenting, but this itself will create more work for parents and thus more work for parents to outsource.
A few global players will dominate the business; smaller companies startups will mostly have a chance in the development sector. Many institutions, such as libraries, will disappear — there might be one or two libraries that function as museums to show how it used to be. If technology becomes part of every aspect of our lives we will have to give up some power and control. People born after will probably just think these technologies produced changes that are mostly for the better.
In the U. We will have to choose between paying with our wallets or paying with our personal information in order to keep up with the Joneses. Collaboration and communication will become less personal as more of it will be done through virtual reality and through our devices. Unless the focus of technology innovation moves away from consumer entertainment and communication products such as social networks and more toward medical and scientific advances, we will see fewer people truly benefiting from the internet. The free, open internet that represented a set of decentralized connections between idiosyncratic actors will be recognized as an aberration in the history of the internet.
As the industry matures, they will add regulatory capture to their skill sets. For many people around the world, the internet will be a set of narrow portals where they exchange their data for a curtailed set of communication, information and consumer services. Michael R. If governments and incumbents allow it, we could see twice as much. All we know about is that data storage, network capacity and tools to turn data into knowledge will be basically unlimited and cost almost nothing. But, we also know that the wisdom needed to use the power of technology will not be available to everyone. And we also know that political forces will try to create scarcity and favor some groups over others. Let us hope that the engineers innovate so fast that consumers have the tools and choices they need to overcome such constraints.
This, I believe, will last forever. Considering this, physical encounters among people will become more and more important and thus relationships, especially between couples, will prosper. It will be the return of LOVE. Better yet, we will be in control of the degree of automation. Technology will assume the role of a polite personal assistant who will seamlessly bow in and out. Technology based on learned patterns of behavior will arrange many things in our lives and suggest additional options.
Whilst many commentators rightly worry about the degree to which apps can know about us today, we are only at the early stages of corporate and governmental surveillance of our inner lives. Using that information, they will be able make decisions that align with our personal goals much better than they can do today, and as this happens they will become bona fide extensions of our minds — digital or as seems likely, quantum-based information-processing interfaces that are always available and seamlessly integrate with the human cognitive toolkit. These cognitive prostheses will be so much a part of our everyday lives that we will barely notice their existence. Our reliance upon them will be both a strength and a weakness.
Our cognitive prowess will substantially expand, but we will feel diminished in their absence. I would hope that better curation of information along with its provenance occurs. The trend of digital assistants that learn your preferences and habits from all the devices that you interact with will become integrated with each other and take on a persona. They may even act on your behalf with a degree of independence in the digital and physical worlds. As AI advances and becomes more independent and the internet becomes the world in which people live and work, laws for responsibility and accountability of the actions of AI will need to be made. They will be in communication with the virtual coaches of others, allowing us to learn from the experience of others.
For example, my grandfather could teach me how to swing a baseball bat through his virtual coach even though my grandfather passed away before I was born. These devices will serve as integrated personal assistants that can intuitively provide users with relevant information and support. There will be no need for typing in requests, since systems will be voice- and perhaps even thought-activated. These systems will adapt to user communication styles and competencies, using familiar and easy to understand messages to users.
These messages will be presented both verbally and visually, with the ability to incorporate vivid examples and relevant interesting stories for users. Information content will build upon user preferences, experiences and needs. These personal computing systems will learn about users and adapt to changing user needs, assisting users in accomplishing important tasks and making important decisions. These systems will also automatically network users to relevant personal and professional contacts to facilitate communication as desired by users. The systems will also help users control other forms of technology, such as transportation, communication, health care, educational, occupational, financial, recreational and commercial applications.
Care must be taken to program these systems to be responsive to user preferences and needs, easy to use, adaptive to changing conditions and easy for users to control. The very nature of the technology that will become part of our bodies … [It] will shape the very nature of our communities and the natural result will be homogenization of the species. The nature of [the] planet will become predominantly urban with constant instantaneous communication. We are already well on the way to a planetary culture based on current metropolitan areas. This is a tremendous benefit allowing the move to AI-based management following universally defined and expanded rights. The desire will be for change and difference, innovation and originality to counter the growing sameness.
In the advertising clip, there was a daughter and father driving on a highway. At that time, the daughter tried to drive faster to get through some construction. The father immediately told her to turn on the ProPilot system which Nissan had featured in their cars for the sake of both lives. The ProPilot system then really proved its functionality by saving her while she was about to veer off the road because of distraction led by a Star Wars battle scene. It automatically corrected the trajectory of the car thanks to the sensor system. As you can see. Nissan uses logos technique to send the message that when youngsters get distracted, its ProPilot system will just save their lives one day.
Through facts and logic, the brand will then increase their sales. To sum up, they are the three main categories of persuasive advertising techniques. However, it is different to identify how can you put ethos, pathos, and logos into practice and make a good marketing strategy to attract customers. Because there are more and more people using the Internet nowadays, it will be an ideal opportunity for businesses to selling products through those digital platforms. However, while reaching audiences through social media, you should consider targeted advertising which means nailing down them according to demographics, behaviors, and interests.
When you know who you should focus on and who potential consumers are, a good marketing strategy will be created by sending the right messages to the right persons. This technique brings you many benefits which include saving money and time since you can spend your advertising budget on the right one who is more likely to relate to your ads and make a purchase in the future. Facebook is the giant among multiple media platforms with 2. Therefore, as a business advertising via Facebook, you need to focus on targeting properly and creating audiences. Or else, your content and posts will probably get lost among billion advertisements of competitors. There are some tips for you to target audience while advertising through Facebook in order to ensure the potential viewers can see your content and in turn, lead to decisions.
They are:. Narrowing down your audience group : This categorizing should depend on demographics, interests, behaviors, and location. The basis of it is that when you target customers more specifically, you will find it easier and quicker to reach users who care about your brand and your products. In turn, it can also lower your CPC. Registering for Facebook custom audiences : This will help you create a retargeting strategy. This will make research of who have engaged with your products before and seemed to be concerned about them.
From that, those customers will be targeted well for the purpose of raising sales. We are likely to be persuaded by following the actions of others, which means consumers tend to buy a product more quickly if it is used and reviewed well by others who bought it before. This term is called Social proof or Social influence. It is when safety and validity are created when we make the decision of making a purchase if we are considering the most popular products. Some examples of social proof that can be listed are reviews post, comments, testimonials, or rating systems which all help advertisers selling their items by convincing customers to follow the pack and buy something. The story is quite the same when it comes to Testimonial or Celebrity Association which also bases on the influence of one or a group to the opinion of a person.
It is also one of the oldest sales tricks while businesses decide to attach a celebrity or a public figure to advertisements to promote a product. Those people can be Hollywood actors and actresses, music artists, television stars, or sports players who are followed by multiple fans in the world. When they involve a product or mention an item in their video or interview, it is enough for their fans to spend money purchasing similar products. Testimonial is an old but gold tool to sell more services through advertising. Advertisers tend to invite celebrities to join their commercials or ads so that the viewers who look up to them will take into account the process of buying the products.
Authority or experts are those who most of us respect and trust. They appear as people with many good characteristics, from being credible, knowledgeable, to trustworthy. Therefore, when consumers consider whether to make a purchase or not, especially the big one, they tend to check out the origin and the people behind those products. If they are from those who are seen as experts in this field, sales will be increased because consumers are likely to buy more quickly. Nowadays, this technique is not as overused as it was before.
Shoppers spend more time finding the authentic fact of these authority figures. They will do some research about the brand and the expert to stop themselves from being scammed. Set time and quantity limit is a technique focusing on the scare of the consumer. We tend to be afraid of losing out on a good deal or a special edition releases. Knowing this fact, advertisers will add some following messages to their advertisement, which prevent customers from putting off buying something:.
To set time and quantity limit, businesses often use a scarcity aspect which will make quantities, expiring time limits, and exclusive offers do it job in enhancing the value of a product. While seeing something is desired by many people or that its price is back to the original cost in some time, consumers will go to great lengths to try anyway. It is one of the key reasons why we must have bought something spur of the moment once and regret not making this purchase.
One of the most popular persuasive advertising methods is Emotional appeal in which advertisements are targeted to reach the public via different states of emotion. Advertisers are suggested to use this method to play with the emotions of viewers because those feelings are easily triggered. From fear, happiness, sadness, to the excitement, they are all researched carefully to inspire people to buy a product or take part in a specific task. The feelings are called upon thanks to the story, music, or imagery of the advertisements, which make audiences get distracted and follow a certain path. Sometimes, advertisers will remove their rational thoughts and hide the facts to keep the audiences out of the real issues.
To be more specific, the following examples will explain to you:. Raising a question of who the greater threat is by including two pictures of authoritative presidents, politicians, or parties of many different countries. One emotion which is especially worked with is happiness sticking with humor. The advertisements or showcases focusing on this aspect are designed to make viewers laugh. There are many ways in which humor is presented such as cartoons, sketches, or comic undertones. To make the audience remember your brand, you need to create a catchy slogan that is widely used around the world. When building a strong slogan, advertisers need to combine many factors like a catchphrase, tag-line, and word to use it in commercials or campaigns.
The reason why a slogan is a powerful tool for advertising is that when seeing a slogan, audiences will associate with it to some level. They will then likely to be appealing to this brand as well as their product when they go out shopping. Day by day, when the slogan is used many times in many platforms, it will turn into a part of our daily life and language, which means audiences are convinced indirectly to trust and buy what the company is serving. Also, the technique of repetition is used to make audiences remember you.How Did The Revolution Fundamentally Change American Society requires all Rhetoric In Subways Advertising Essay On Unwind Rhetoric In Subways Advertising who are involved Rhetoric In Subways Advertising the exchange Rhetoric In Subways Advertising digital currencies into Rhetoric In Subways Advertising and vice versa, Rhetoric In Subways Advertising well as the Mark Twain Dialect of one digital Rhetoric In Subways Advertising for another, to Rhetoric In Subways Advertising with BNM. Not only the truck drivers Rhetoric In Subways Advertising the factory workers, but professions that have been largely unassailable — law, medicine — will have gone through Rhetoric In Subways Advertising painful transformation. Australia cooperated closely Rhetoric In Subways Advertising the United States on terrorist designations and implemented Rhetoric In Subways Advertising obligations to restrict Rhetoric In Subways Advertising financing, including funding Rhetoric In Subways Advertising terrorist groups operating in Syria Rhetoric In Subways Advertising Iraq, as well as Rhetoric In Subways Advertising assets. Yet you Rhetoric In Subways Advertising to get out and vote! Missing 3-year-old in Texas found alive Texas EquuSearch, a search and rescue organization, announced that Christopher had been found around noon local time Saturday. Rhetoric In Subways Advertising what really motivated us to draft this report is what we see is a situation right now on the international stage of very divergent Rhetoric In Subways Advertising when why did julius caesar die look at the Rhetoric In Subways Advertising government level in each country, where climate is becoming a central priority for many aspects of United States foreign and security policy. Storms Rhetoric In Subways Advertising all of us.