✪✪✪ Controversy: Does Dropping Out Of School Promote Or Reduce Delinquency?
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How School Makes Kids Less Intelligent - Eddy Zhong - TEDxYouth@BeaconStreet
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His teacher called the police on him for not removing his bandana. He was then arrested and suspended for nine days. In the summer of , an year-old black girl, Faith Fennidy, was sent home from a private Roman Catholic school in Louisiana because she had hair extensions. The young girl had been wearing extensions to school for two years before a new policy was added. The child would have to adhere to the policy to attend school. The family chose to withdraw the student from the school; the student was not suspended or expelled. In , at Creekside Elementary School in Milledgeville , Georgia, a six-year-old student, Salecia Johnson, was crying and flailing on the floor of her principal's office.
The principal said she was inconsolable, had thrown various items, and had damaged school property during a tantrum. Salecia was handcuffed and transported to a police station. The child was initially charged as a juvenile with simple battery of a schoolteacher and criminal damage to property, but it was later decided the girl would not be charged because of her age.
In the Obama administration issued guidance that urged schools to reduce the number of suspensions and expulsions, especially of minority students, thereby stemming the school-to-prison pipeline. Lead author John Paul Wright has advocated for the fringe view that black people evolved to be genetically inferior to white people. They concluded that "the racial gap in suspensions was completely accounted for by a measure of the prior problem behavior of the student a finding never before reported in the literature. Education researcher Francis Huang found other methodological flaws in the study by Wright et al. The use of restorative justice in schools began in the early s with initiatives in Australia. Restorative justice models are used globally and have recently been introduced to school disciplinary policies in the United States as an alternative approach to current punitive models, such as zero tolerance.
Programs, such as restorative circles, restorative meetings, restorative youth courts, and peer mediation, are being used as alternatives to zero tolerance policies and harsh disciplinary practices. The goal of restorative programs is to keep students in school and to stop the flow of students from schools to the criminal justice system. Some challenges to the use of restorative justice in schools are lack of time and community support. It requires balancing the time needed for mediation with the other demands of education in one school day.
Scholars acknowledge that to achieve proper, unbiased mediation, it will require training, support, and review. It is also crucial that an entire community— students, parents, teachers, staff, coaches, etc. Steven Teske, a juvenile court judge in Clayton County, Georgia, created the School-Justice Partnership model in , known as the "Clayton County Model" or informally, "The Teske Model", to reduce the arrests of students involving minor offenses by using a collaborative agreement between schools, law enforcement, and the courts.
The model has three main components: identifying minor offenses not subject to referral to the court; defining the roles of school police and school administrators to avoid using police as disciplinarians; and creating restorative practices and education programs in lieu of arrests. It took aim at zero tolerance policies which do not consider situational context or individual circumstances.
The model's application in his county resulted in a 67 percent decline in referrals to juvenile court. Despite concerns by some that a softer approach would yield school safety issues, the data shows an increase in graduation rates of approximately 20 percent and an 8 percent decline in suspensions. The method has spread across the United States with some notable cities such as Birmingham, Alabama, and Wichita, Kansas, seeing similar improvements.
Beginning especially in the s, the mainstream commercial media in the U. Advertising rates are set based on the audience. Because "if it bleeds, it leads" , the media were able to accomplish this change without losing audience. Beyond this, the growth of private prisons increased the pool of major advertisers who could be offended by honest reporting on incarcerations and the school-to-prison pipeline: It makes financial sense to report on this only to the extent that such reporting is needed to maintain an audience. Media constructions have contributed to hysteria over youth violence and mass incarcerations. TV overrepresents violent crime and people of color as offenders.
This creates a "culture of fear" and " mean world syndrome " that particularly works against black or Latino males. Where there are undetected and untreated child mental health concerns, this can lead to unwanted suspensions and expulsions. Students with diagnosable mental health problems suffer under zero tolerance policies. Such policies aim to create safer classrooms by removing potential disruptions, but many in mental health, social services, courts, or other related fields believe they fail in this goal and may result in less safe schools and communities. School is considered a protective factor against "delinquent conduct" and removing students from such an environment harms their ability to succeed. An American Psychological Association Zero Tolerance Task Force report found that "students with disabilities, especially those with emotional and behavioral disorders, appear to be suspended and expelled at rates disproportionate to the representation in the population.
Zero tolerance policies also fail to account for neurological development in youths. Studies show that the brain is still "under construction" until about age Youth are more likely to take risks, act impulsively, and exercise poor judgment. When these actions result in their involvement with the criminal justice system, they are punished rather than taught how to develop.
One issue in improving mental health services in school and interrupting the school to prison pipeline is that schools are unequipped to identify disorders and provide help for them. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Disproportionate tendency of minors and young adults from disadvantaged backgrounds to become incarcerated. See also: Zero tolerance schools. See also: Youth incarceration in the United States. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Forum on Public Policy Online.
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