⒈ Glass Ceiling Phenomenon Report

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Glass Ceiling Phenomenon Report



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In addition, research has been conducted to explore ways in which "The Framework Act on Gender Equality" can be changed for the better through the concept of intersectionality. In , South Korea decided not to criminalize women's abortions. The decision was made to further consider women's options and autonomy in pregnancy and childbirth. By conducting surveys and in-depth interviews with Korean female welfare workers, investigators focused on examining gender awareness through various questions about gender perspectives and analyzing women's gender roles and gender identities in their families. According to the analysis, gender awareness was very weak in Korean women's welfare policy, but awareness of its importance and necessity was high.

Women's welfare officials are often aware of women's gender roles as "dependents" and "caregivers," which results in a reflection in the policy's implementation process. Therefore, it seems that there will need to be a follow-up plan to improve adult awareness of those who can play an important role in the enforcement process. As it was shown above, in traditional Korean society, females could not have access to formal education and the literacy rate was low.

The transition came in the late 19th century to the early 20th century when the Western Christian missionaries came to South Korea by establishing modern schools for girls. In , Methodist missionaries found a primary school. In , this primary school gained its status as a university, which is now called Ewha Womans University. Ewha Womans University is still known as the most prestigious women's university in South Korea. There were about ten women institutions of higher education such as junior colleges, colleges, and university by in South Korea. In , there were about , female students in higher education. The growing number of women receiving a college education has meant that their sex role differs from that of their mothers and grandmothers.

Many college-educated women plan independent careers and challenge the right of parents to choose a marriage partner. The often fierce battles between university students and police during the late s included female participants. A correspondent for the Far Eastern Economic Review quoted a male student leader as saying that "short girls make great demonstrators, as they're very tough and very hard to catch. The number of employed married women, however, increased by approximately In more women— Most of the women working in rural areas were over the age of thirty, as young females and males tended to move to, and seek employment in, cities and industrial areas.

Official South Korean statistics indicated that In some cases, they were obliged to become part of the "entertainment industry" in order to survive economically. According to one estimate, brothels , bars, massage parlors , discos, and what are known as "Taiwan style" barbershops that is, those often employing a greater number of masseuses than barbers employed as many as 1 million women, though not all were prostitutes. This underworld of abuse and exploitation had begun to be criticized and exposed by women's activists. In today's South Korean society, the Constitution ensures equal access to education for women and also eliminates any discrimination regarding receiving education based on gender.

In , the literacy rate was In addition, according to estimates, the literacy rate increased to The enrolment rate for high school is at approximately During the Goryeo and early Joseon Dynasty , it was customary for married couples to live in the wife's parents' household. This arrangement suggests that the status of women was higher than it was during the later period of the Joseon Dynasty. Neo-Confucian orthodoxy dictated that the woman, separated from her parents, had a primary duty of providing a male heir for her husband's family.

According to this custom, once married, a woman had to leave her parents' household and then become a part of her husband's household. The relationship between wife and husband was often, if not usually, distant, aptly described by the Korean proverb: "By day, like seeing a stranger; by night, like seeing a lover. Further, the sons and grandsons of widows who defied the ban, like children of secondary wives, were not allowed to take the civil service examinations and become scholar-officials. Despite the rapid changes in society due to industrialization, it was not converted to a gender-equal family culture due to the influence of the traditional family norms. In particular, Familism , which has been emphasized through the industrialization process, has continued to be family-centered and patriarchal , emphasizing the safety of the entire family rather than the individual.

This Familism consequently infringed on women's unique rights by defining women as secondary to their family composition. In South Korea's history, which has disparaged women's rights, gender inequality has been strengthened, reproduced through the family's life culture. For example, the traditional marriage and kinship system, which used women as objects of paternalism, has excluded women from ancestor worship, inheritance, and possession. However, the recent debate over the abolition of the family headship system in South Korea has emerged as an important social issue.

So, women's attempts to respect their rights and choices as individuals are spreading beyond their families to social areas. These women's attempts are causing social conflicts such as gender and family. Modern patriarchy is no different from the deformed succession of pre-modern family ethics. Familism in South Korea is now at a crossroads that must be transformed into gender-equal and democratic family ethics. The duty of a woman to her husband, or rather to her husband's family, was absolute and unquestionable. In traditional society, only men could obtain a divorce. A husband could divorce his spouse if she were barren—barrenness being defined simply as the inability to bear sons.

The incompatibility of a wife and her in-laws was another reason for divorce. In contemporary society, both men and women have the right to obtain a divorce. Social and economic discrimination, however, make the lot of divorced women more difficult. The husband may still demand custody of the children, although a revision of the Family Law in made it more difficult for him to coerce or to deceive his wife into agreeing to an unfair settlement. The rate of divorce in South Korea is increasing rapidly.

In the number of divorces was 17, In the mids, the annual number of divorces was between 23, and 26,, and in there were 45, divorces. The tradition of total female submission persisted in Korean villages until relatively recent times. One Korean scholar who came from the conservative Chungcheong region recalled that when a high school friend died of sickness during the s, his young bride committed suicide. Her act was commemorated in her own and the surrounding communities as an outstanding example of devotion to duty. Traditionally, men and women were strictly segregated, both inside and outside the house.

Yangban women spent most of their lives in seclusion in the women's chamber. It is said that the traditional pastime of nolttwigi , a game of jumping up and down on a seesaw -like contraption, originated among bored women who wanted to peek over the high walls of their family compounds to see what the outside world was like. Economic necessity gave women of the lower classes some freedom as they participated in farm work and sometimes earned supplemental income through making and selling things. As of February , adultery is no longer illegal in South Korea. According to The Economist ' s "Glass-ceiling index" of five indicators of friendliness towards working women, South Korea ranks the lowest of all OECD countries because of its lack of women in senior jobs.

These people included female shamans mudang , who were called upon to cure illnesses, tell fortunes, or in other ways enlist the help of spirits in realizing the wishes of their clients. Despite its sponsorship of neo-Confucianism , the Choson Dynasty had an office of shamanism, and female shamans often were quite influential in the royal palace. The female physicians who treated female patients because male physicians were forbidden to examine them constituted another important group of women. Sometimes they acted as spies or policewomen because they could get into the female quarters of a house. Still another group of women were the kisaeng.

Some kisaeng, or entertainers, were merely prostitutes ; but others, were talented musicians, dancers, painters, and poets who interacted with their male patrons. The kisaeng tradition perpetuated one of the more dubious legacies of the Joseon past: an extreme double standard concerning the sexual behavior of married men and women that still persists. In the cities, however, many middle-class women have begun to break with these traditions. An interesting regional variation on traditional female roles continued in the late s. In the coastal villages of Jeju Island , women divers swam in search of seaweed, oysters, and other marine products and were economically self-sufficient.

Often they provided the main economic support for the family while the husband did subsidiary work — took care of the children and did household chores — in sharp contrast to the Confucian norm. The number of women divers was dwindling, however, and men were increasingly performing jobs in service industries. Ancestor worship was rarely practiced while female-centered shamanistic rites were widespread. The factories of South Korea employ hundreds of thousands of young women on shop floors and assembly lines making, among other things, textiles and clothes, shoes, and electronic components.

South Korea's economic success was bought in large measure with the sweat of these generally overworked and poorly paid female laborers. In the offices of banks and other service enterprises, young women working as clerks and secretaries are indispensable. Unlike their sisters on Jeju Island, however, the majority of these women work only until marriage.

There has been a tangible increase in the number of women joining the workforce. The work-family conflict measure considered both directions, "work to a family," and "family to a work," to better understand the various roles of women in the work-family domain. Through this test, a discriminatory feasibility test between work-family conflict and work-family fostering revealed a significant negative correlation. This result supported the validity of the WFC. Simultaneous inspection of WFC and workplace satisfaction confirmed validity, and as the work-family conflict grows, women's work satisfaction decreases.

Although increasing numbers of women work outside the home, the dominant conception, particularly for the college-educated middle class, is that the husband is the "outside person," the one whose employment provides the main source of economic support; the wife is the "inside person," whose chief responsibility is maintenance of the household. While it is viewed as a societal norm that women be able to contribute to the finance of the household, the majority of the onus is placed upon men, [37] Women tend to leave the labor force when they get married. Many women manage the family finances, and a large number join kye , informal private short-term credit associations that give them access to funds that might not be obtainable from a conventional bank.

Probably the most important responsibility of married women is the management of their children's education. Women also claim much of the responsibilities of being a caretaker, as half of the women that voluntarily leave their mid-career or senior-level jobs do so due to family commitments [38] College-educated women in Korea tend to invest more time and capital to raising their children than individuals without a degree. It also pays subsidies to businesses that offer more than 30 days of childcare leave a year, allow women to work less than full time, and re-employ women returning from maternity leave.

Despite these efforts, the number of women who regularly use these support systems composes a minority of the women who find themselves in this position. A major factor that influences these decisions is the declining birth rate in Korea, as Korea's birthrate of 1. According to a comprehensive analysis of factors that can affect female workers' gender discrimination by dividing them into personal, family, relational, and environmental characteristics, "the perception of bosses and leaders" and "relationship with them" were important factors that determine women's perception of gender discrimination at work.

Korea's gender system serves as the basis for the social rights of non-regular female workers in structural relationships with the labor market and welfare state. Women's irregular labor in Korea is the main form of "temporary" employment and is characterized by job insecurity, low wages, long-term labor, and exclusion from national welfare and corporate welfare. From a social perspective, all types of rights based on their status as workers, parents, spouses, and citizens are vulnerable: paid labor, unpaid labor, unpaid labor, and care rights. Until now, it has been interpreted that female non-regular workers are treated worse than male non-regular workers due to the influence of the gender system, which defines women as care-giver and secondary workers.

And the poor social rights of female irregular workers are responsible for all three closely linked structures: a social insurance-driven welfare state, a dual labour market system, and a gender system in the male-dependent model. The Glass Ceiling for women has been tested in contemporary times. In , Samsung promoted three women into executive roles, which was unusual for a company of its size. In this movie, she played the role of Monica's grandmother, Soon-Ja. She won the Oscar for best-supporting actress for her performance in "Minari" and made history by becoming the first Korean actor to win an Academy Award.

Conscription in South Korea has existed since and requires only male citizens between the ages of 18 and 28 to perform compulsory military service. Women are not required to perform military service, but they may voluntarily join the military. Due to criticism over the handling of the case, government officials asked for all complaints of sexual abuse to be recorded and have reportedly launched 20 separate investigations to follow up complaints.

Prostitution in South Korea is illegal, but according to one estimate, brothels , bars, massage parlors , discos, and what are known as "Taiwan style" barbershops that is, those often employing a greater number of masseuses than barbers employed as many as 1 million women, though not all were prostitutes. South Korean women and girls have been victims of sex trafficking in South Korea. They are raped and physically and psychologically harmed in brothels, businesses, homes, hotels, and other locations throughout the country. There are an estimated ,,, women who partake in the sex trade, that being approximately one in every twenty-five women. South Korean law first acknowledged women as rapists in June ; in , the first woman was charged with rape in South Korea.

As technology has progressed, cameras have become smaller and some have been made to resemble everyday objects for example: ballpoint pens, key rings, USB sticks. Criminals often use these videos or pictures, publishing them online for money. In some cases they have been published to online live streams. While many of those who make the recordings are indiscriminate with regard to their victims, some specifically target those with fame or wealth such as K-pop stars, actors, government officials, or popular social media figures.

Spycam recording is an invasion of privacy involving a disregard for human rights, and it can have a significant impact on its victims. Some people are frightened by the thought that someone could always be watching them. Other reactions include stress, drinking, and in some cases the victims have committed suicide. Before the National Assembly extended the law on this, offenders would serve up to 18 months for the crime.

The maximum sentence has been extended to 3 years, and this includes anyone who has the footage in their possession rather than just the person who made the recording. There were over 26, reported cases from to With few government staff available to inspect public restrooms and items, it has been difficult for government agencies to find hidden cameras since they are usually only placed in a location for a short time. In there was a MeToo movement in the country, raising awareness of these issues, along with sexual assault, harassment, and gender inequality. Many protests have arisen from this movement, and in Gwangwhamun Plaza almost women talked about their sexual harassment experiences for a total of minutes.

A petition for further punishment of sex crimes gained nearly , signatures, while the government only requires , signatures to require a response. Behaviours such as stereotyping, discrimination, demeaning or contemptuous speech, regarding women as sex objects, focusing on appearance and age, and replacing women with body parts or genitals, have become commonplace in South Korean online culture. These can be disregarded as the acts of malicious people, but the production and distribution of online hate speech can nevertheless reinforce stereotypes and lead to generalization.

Online hate speech is reproduced and multiplied in ways that can establish and reinforce prejudice against women. The pursuit of gender equality in online spaces may require education. In , a digital sex crime called the Nth room case occurred in South Korea. The suspects used messenger apps such as Telegram to lure and threaten victims, filming and distributing the resultant sexual exploitation. Research has been actively pursued in South Korea into ways to respond to digital sex crimes such as the Nth room case. The research has identified a lack of punishment for many digital sex crimes, emphasizing that digital sex crime should be regarded as a form of violence and a crime against women. Increasing the punishment for making illegal recordings and actively investigating reports have been suggested.

In addition, technology could be used to block the publication of illegal recordings. There is also an opinion that watching illegal recordings could be punished. The hate expression for Korean women in the s has been moving toward racialization, as can be seen in the expression " Kimchi girl. These women claim to employ a mirroring strategy by parodying the misogyny of men.

In other words, the existing patriarchal gender discourse is materialized in reverse on a narrative level, emphasizing its sexual discrimination and contradiction. It is a common mistake to use "an" instead of "en". Although PMMA is often called simply "acrylic", acrylic can also refer to other polymers or copolymers containing polyacrylonitrile. PMMA is routinely produced by emulsion polymerization , solution polymerization , and bulk polymerization.

Generally, radical initiation is used including living polymerization methods , but anionic polymerization of PMMA can also be performed. To produce 1 kg 2. PMMA is thus an organic glass at room temperature; i. The forming temperature starts at the glass transition temperature and goes up from there. The highest quality PMMA sheets are produced by cell casting , but in this case, the polymerization and molding steps occur concurrently.

The strength of the material is higher than molding grades owing to its extremely high molecular mass. Rubber toughening has been used to increase the toughness of PMMA to overcome its brittle behavior in response to applied loads. PMMA can be joined using cyanoacrylate cement commonly known as superglue , with heat welding , or by using chlorinated solvents such as dichloromethane or trichloromethane [24] chloroform to dissolve the plastic at the joint, which then fuses and sets, forming an almost invisible weld. Scratches may easily be removed by polishing or by heating the surface of the material.

Laser cutting may be used to form intricate designs from PMMA sheets. PMMA vaporizes to gaseous compounds including its monomers upon laser cutting, so a very clean cut is made, and cutting is performed very easily. However, the pulsed lasercutting introduces high internal stresses along the cut edge, which on exposure to solvents produce undesirable "stress-crazing" at the cut edge and several millimetres deep. Even ammonium-based glass-cleaner and almost everything short of soap-and-water produces similar undesirable crazing, sometimes over the entire surface of the cut parts, at great distances from the stressed edge.

In the majority of applications, it will not shatter. Rather, it breaks into large dull pieces. Since PMMA is softer and more easily scratched than glass, scratch-resistant coatings are often added to PMMA sheets to protect it as well as possible other functions. Methyl methacrylate " synthetic resin " for casting simply the bulk liquid chemical may be used in conjunction with a polymerization catalyst such as methyl ethyl ketone peroxide MEKP , to produce hardened transparent PMMA in any shape, from a mold. Objects like insects or coins, or even dangerous chemicals in breakable quartz ampules, may be embedded in such "cast" blocks, for display and safe handling.

PMMA is a strong, tough, and lightweight material. It has a density of 1. Some manufacturers [28] add coatings or additives to PMMA to improve absorption in the — nm range. Colored PMMA varieties allow specific IR wavelengths to pass while blocking visible light for remote control or heat sensor applications, for example. PMMA swells and dissolves in many organic solvents ; it also has poor resistance to many other chemicals due to its easily hydrolyzed ester groups. Nevertheless, its environmental stability is superior to most other plastics such as polystyrene and polyethylene, and therefore it is often the material of choice for outdoor applications.

PMMA has a maximum water absorption ratio of 0. Pure poly methyl methacrylate homopolymer is rarely sold as an end product, since it is not optimized for most applications. Rather, modified formulations with varying amounts of other comonomers , additives, and fillers are created for uses where specific properties are required. For example,. The polymer of methyl acrylate, PMA or poly methyl acrylate , is similar to poly methyl methacrylate , except for the lack of methyl groups on the backbone carbon chain. Being transparent and durable, PMMA is a versatile material and has been used in a wide range of fields and applications such as rear-lights and instrument clusters for vehicles, appliances, and lenses for glasses.

It is also used for coating polymers based on MMA provides outstanding stability against environmental conditions with reduced emission of VOC. Methacrylate polymers are used extensively in medical and dental applications where purity and stability are critical to performance. In particular, acrylic-type contact lenses are useful for cataract surgery in patients that have recurrent ocular inflammation uveitis , as acrylic material induces less inflammation.

Due to its aforementioned biocompatibility, poly methyl methacrylate is a commonly used material in modern dentistry, particularly in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, artificial teeth, and orthodontic appliances. High-heel shoes made of Lucite. An electric bass guitar made from poly methyl methacrylate. The Futuro house was made of fibreglass-reinforced polyester plastic, polyester-polyurethane, and poly methylmethacrylate ; one of them was found to be degrading by cyanobacteria and Archaea. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Transparent thermoplastic. This article is about the transparent plastic sometimes called acrylic glass.

For other uses, see Acrylic disambiguation. Poly methyl 2-methylpropenoate. CAS Number. Interactive image. C N. Chemical formula. Refractive index n D. Chemical compound. See also: Amber. Main article: Poly methyl acrylate. This section contains embedded lists that may be poorly defined, unverified or indiscriminate. Please help to clean it up to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Where appropriate, incorporate items into the main body of the article. February Main article: Anidolic lighting. Retrieved Bibcode : JMagR. PMID S2CID Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering 4th ed.

ISBN Polycarbonate: A quantitative and qualitative comparison". Archived from the original on Washington, D. Government Printing Office. Retrieved 3 August Merriam-Webster Dictionary. US Patent and Trademark Office. Search for Registration Number

Chemically, it is the synthetic polymer of methyl Glass Ceiling Phenomenon Report. France Glass Ceiling Phenomenon Report United States The Scarlet Letter Light Analysis. Women were expected to produce sons and they were Wiggle Room Analysis if their children were girls due to the Glass Ceiling Phenomenon Report that a son was preferable Glass Ceiling Phenomenon Report a Glass Ceiling Phenomenon Report.

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