➊ Traditional Chinese Woman

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Traditional Chinese Woman

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One of his case studies was that of Fan Jisuo's teenage daughter, who could not be diagnosed because she was unwilling to speak about her symptoms, since the illness involved discharge from her intimate areas. To maintain some form of modesty, women would often stay hidden behind curtains and screens. The doctor was allowed to touch enough of her body to complete his examination, often just the pulse taking. This would lead to situations where the symptoms and the doctor's diagnosis did not agree and the doctor would have to ask to view more of the patient.

These social and cultural beliefs were often barriers to learning more about female health, with women themselves often being the most formidable barrier. Women were often uncomfortable talking about their illnesses, especially in front of the male chaperones that attended medical examinations. One such examples is the case in which a teenage girl was unable to be diagnosed because she failed to mention her symptom of vaginal discharge. This silence and control was most obviously seen when the health problem was related to the core of Ming fuke , or the sexual body. In addition, there would be conflict between patient and doctor on the probability of her diagnosis. For example, a woman who thought herself to be past the point of child-bearing age, might not believe a doctor who diagnoses her as pregnant.

Yin and Yang were critical to the understanding of women's bodies, but understood only in conjunction with male bodies. In addition, gender in the body was understood as homologous, the two genders operating in synchronization. According to Bequeathed Writings of Master Chu the male's yang pulse movement follows an ascending path in "compliance [with cosmic direction] so that the cycle of circulation in the body and the Vital Gate are felt The female's yin pulse movement follows a defending path against the direction of cosmic influences, so that the nadir and the Gate of Life are felt at the inch position of the left hand".

Bodily functions could be categorized through systems, not organs. In many drawings and diagrams, the twelve channels and their visceral systems were organized by yin and yang, an organization that was identical in female and male bodies. Female and male bodies were no different on the plane of yin and yang. Their gendered differences were not acknowledged in diagrams of the human body. Medical journals were filled with illustrations of male bodies or androgynous bodies that did not display gendered characteristics.

As in other cultures, fertility and menstruation dominate female health concerns. The abdominal cavity presented pathologies that were similar in both men and women, which included tumors, growths, hernias, and swellings of the genitals. The "master system," as Charlotte Furth calls it, is the kidney visceral system, which governed reproductive functions. Therefore, it was not the anatomical structures that allowed for pregnancy, but the difference in processes that allowed for the affliction of pregnancy to occur. Traditional Chinese medicine's dealings with pregnancy are documented from at least the seventeenth century. According to Charlotte Furth, "a pregnancy in the seventeenth century as a known bodily experience emerged [ The Canon of the Pulse , which described the use of pulse in diagnosis, stated that pregnancy was "a condition marked by symptoms of disorder in one whose pulse is normal" or "where the pulse and symptoms do not agree".

Complications through the misdiagnosis and the woman's reluctance to speak often led to medically induced abortions. Cheng, Furth wrote, "was unapologetic about endangering a fetus when pregnancy risked a mother's well being". Disappointment at the loss of the fetus often led to family discord. If the baby and mother survived the term of the pregnancy, childbirth was then the next step. The tools provided for birth were: towels to catch the blood, a container for the placenta, a pregnancy sash to support the belly, and an infant swaddling wrap.

Cheng places a large amount of emphasis on the Four Diagnostic methods to deal with postpartum issues and instructs all physicians to "not neglect any [of the four methods]". Infertility, not very well understood, posed serious social and cultural repercussions. The 7th-century scholar Sun Simiao is often quoted: "those who have prescriptions for women's distinctiveness take their differences of pregnancy, childbirth and [internal] bursting injuries as their basis. Once again, the kidney visceral system governs the "source Qi, " which governs the reproductive systems in both sexes.

This source Qi was thought to "be slowly depleted through sexual activity, menstruation and childbirth. In addition, the view that only very serious ailments ended in the damage of this system means that those who had trouble with their reproductive systems or fertility were seriously ill. According to traditional Chinese medical texts, infertility can be summarized into different syndrome types. These were spleen and kidney depletion yang depletion , liver and kidney depletion yin depletion , blood depletion, phlegm damp, liver oppression, and damp heat.

This is important because, while most other issues were complex in Chinese medical physiology, women's fertility issues were simple. Most syndrome types revolved around menstruation, or lack thereof. The patient was entrusted with recording not only the frequency, but also the "volume, color, consistency, and odor of menstrual flow. This meant that diagnosing female infertility was difficult, because the only symptoms that were recorded and monitored by the physician was the pulse and color of the tongue.

To determine which pattern is at hand, practitioners will examine things like the color and shape of the tongue, the relative strength of pulse-points, the smell of the breath, the quality of breathing or the sound of the voice. For example, the disease entity of a common cold might present with a pattern of wind-cold in one person, and with the pattern of wind-heat in another. Since therapy will not be chosen according to the disease entity but according to the pattern, two people with the same disease entity but different patterns will receive different therapy.

In clinical practice, the identified pattern usually involves a combination of affected entities [] compare with typical examples of patterns. The concrete pattern identified should account for all the symptoms a person has. Six-Excesses-patterns can consist of only one or a combination of Excesses e. After the fundamental nature of a disease in terms of the Eight Principles is determined, the investigation focuses on more specific aspects. In TCM, there are five major diagnostic methods: inspection, auscultation, olfaction, inquiry, and palpation. Examination of the tongue and the pulse are among the principal diagnostic methods in TCM. Details of the tongue, including shape, size, color, texture, cracks, teethmarks, as well as tongue coating are all considered as part of tongue diagnosis.

For example, redness on the tip of the tongue might indicate heat in the Heart, while redness on the sides of the tongue might indicate a heat in the Liver. The pulse is examined for several characteristics including rhythm, strength and volume, and described with qualities like "floating, slippery, bolstering-like, feeble, thready and quick"; each of these qualities indicate certain disease patterns.

Learning TCM pulse diagnosis can take several years. The term "herbal medicine" is somewhat misleading in that, while plant elements are by far the most commonly used substances in TCM, other, non-botanic substances are used as well: animal, human, and mineral products are also used. There are roughly 13, compounds used in China and over , TCM recipes recorded in the ancient literature. Some animal parts used can be considered rather strange such as cow gallstones, [] hornet nests, [] leeches , [] and scorpion. Some compounds can include the parts of endangered species, including tiger bones [] and rhinoceros horn [] which is used for many ailments though not as an aphrodisiac as is commonly misunderstood in the West.

Poachers hunt restricted or endangered species to supply the black market with TCM products. Since TCM recognizes bear bile as a treatment compound, more than 12, asiatic black bears are held in bear farms. The bile is extracted through a permanent hole in the abdomen leading to the gall bladder , which can cause severe pain. This can lead to bears trying to kill themselves. As of , approximately 10, bears are farmed in China for their bile. The deer penis is believed to have therapeutic benefits according to traditional Chinese medicine. Tiger parts from poached animals include tiger penis , believed to improve virility, and tiger eyes.

The tortoise freshwater turtle , guiban and turtle Chinese softshell turtle , biejia species used in traditional Chinese medicine are raised on farms, while restrictions are made on the accumulation and export of other endangered species. Traditional Chinese Medicine also includes some human parts: the classic Materia medica Bencao Gangmu describes also criticizes the use of 35 human body parts and excreta in medicines, including bones, fingernail, hairs, dandruff, earwax, impurities on the teeth, feces, urine, sweat, organs, but most are no longer in use. Human placenta has been used an ingredient in certain traditional Chinese medicines, [] including using dried human placenta, known as "Ziheche", to treat infertility, impotence and other conditions.

As of [update] there were not enough good-quality trials of herbal therapies to allow their effectiveness to be determined. Fifty percent of systematic reviews on TCM did not search Chinese databases, which could lead to a bias in the results. With an eye to the enormous Chinese market, pharmaceutical companies have explored creating new drugs from traditional remedies. The journal Nature commented that "claims made on behalf of an uncharted body of knowledge should be treated with the customary scepticism that is the bedrock of both science and medicine.

There had been success in the s, however, with the development of the antimalarial drug artemisinin , which is a processed extract of Artemisia annua , a herb traditionally used as a fever treatment. In , Li Shizhen recommended tea made from qinghao specifically to treat malaria symptoms in his Compendium of Materia Medica. Researcher Tu Youyou discovered that a low-temperature extraction process could isolate an effective antimalarial substance from the plant. Despite global efforts in combating malaria, it remains a large burden for the population.

Also in the s Chinese researcher Zhang TingDong and colleagues investigated the potential use of the traditionally used substance arsenic trioxide to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia APL. Huperzine A , an extract from the herb, Huperzia serrata , is under preliminary research as a possible therapeutic for Alzheimer's disease, but poor methodological quality of the research restricts conclusions about its effectiveness. Pien tze huang was first documented in the Ming dynasty. A systematic review found there is a lack of available cost-effectiveness evidence in TCM.

From the earliest records regarding the use of compounds to today, the toxicity of certain substances has been described in all Chinese materiae medicae. Substances known to be potentially dangerous include Aconitum , [23] [40] secretions from the Asiatic toad , [] powdered centipede, [] the Chinese beetle Mylabris phalerata , [] certain fungi, [] Aristolochia , [40] arsenic sulfide realgar , [] mercury sulfide, [] and cinnabar. To avoid its toxic adverse effects Xanthium sibiricum must be processed. However, many adverse reactions are due to misuse or abuse of Chinese medicine. Acupuncture is the insertion of needles into superficial structures of the body skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles — usually at acupuncture points acupoints — and their subsequent manipulation; this aims at influencing the flow of qi.

In electroacupuncture , an electric current is applied to the needles once they are inserted, to further stimulate the respective acupuncture points. A recent historian of Chinese medicine remarked that it is "nicely ironic that the specialty of acupuncture -- arguably the most questionable part of their medical heritage for most Chinese at the start of the twentieth century -- has become the most marketable aspect of Chinese medicine. Moreover, the fine, filiform needle we think of as the acupuncture needle today was not widely used a century ago. Present day acupuncture was developed in the s and put into wide practice only as late as the s.

An editorial stated that the inconsistency of results of acupuncture studies i. According to the US NIH National Cancer Institute, a review of 17, patients reported that real acupuncture relieved muscle and joint pain, caused by aromatase inhibitors, much better than sham acupuncture. A meta-analysis concluded that the mechanisms of acupuncture "are clinically relevant, but that an important part of these total effects is not due to issues considered to be crucial by most acupuncturists, such as the correct location of points and depth of needling A overview of Cochrane reviews found evidence that suggests acupuncture is effective for some but not all kinds of pain.

Asian massage is typically administered with the person fully clothed, without the application of grease or oils. Qi is air, breath, energy, or primordial life source that is neither matter or spirit. While Gong is a skillful movement, work, or exercise of the qi. A match is lit and placed inside the cup and then removed before placing the cup against the skin. As the air in the cup is heated, it expands, and after placing in the skin, cools, creating lower pressure inside the cup that allows the cup to stick to the skin via suction.

It is believed that this treatment is for almost any ailment. The concepts yin and yang are associated with different classes of foods, and tradition considers it important to consume them in a balanced fashion. From 1 July Chinese medicine practitioners must be registered under the national registration and accreditation scheme with the Chinese Medicine Board of Australia and meet the Board's Registration Standards, to practice in Australia. The People's Republic of China has supported traditional Chinese medicine since its founding in [] The National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine was created in , which then absorbed existing TCM management in with major changes in The new law standardized TCM certifications by requiring TCM practitioners to i pass exams administered by provincial-level TCM authorities, and ii obtain recommendations from two certified practitioners.

During British rule , Chinese Medicine practitioners in Hong Kong were not recognized as "medical doctors", which means they could not issue prescription drugs, give injections, etc. It regulates the compounds and professional standards for TCM practitioners. The eligibility for registration includes a recognised 5-year university degree of TCM, a week minimum supervised clinical internship, and passing the licensing exam. Portuguese Macau government seldom interfered in the affairs of the Chinese society, including the regulations on the practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

There were a few TCM pharmacies in Macau during the colonial period. In , the Portuguese Macau government published the Decree-Law no. After the sovereign handover, the Macau S. Traditional medicine license Surat Izin Pengobatan Tradisional — SIPT is granted to the practitioners whose methods are recognized as safe and may benefit health. The only TCM method which is accepted by medical logic and is empirically proofed is acupuncture. The Traditional and Complementary Medicine Bill was passed by parliament in establishing the Traditional and Complementary Medicine Council to register and regulate traditional and complementary medicine practitioners, including traditional Chinese medicine practitioners as well as other traditional and complementary medicine practitioners such as those in traditional Malay medicine and traditional Indian medicine.

There are no specific regulations in the Netherlands on traditional Chinese medicine, [] traditional Chinese medicine is neither prohibited nor recognised by the government of the Netherlands. Despite its status, some private health insurance companies reimburse a certain amount of annual costs for acupuncture treatments, this depends on one's insurance policy, as not all insurance policies cover it, and if the acupuncture practitioner is or isn't a member of one of the professional organisations that are recognised by private health insurance companies.

This inclusion granted qualified and professionally registered acupuncturists to provide subsidised care and treatment to citizens, residents, and temporary visitors for work or sports related injuries that occurred within and upon the land of New Zealand. In , California established an Acupuncture Board and became the first state licensing professional acupuncturists. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Traditional medicine in China. For the practice of medicine in modern China, see Medicine in China.

General information. Alternative medicine History Terminology Alternative veterinary medicine Quackery health fraud Rise of modern medicine Pseudoscience Antiscience Skepticism Skeptical movement Therapeutic nihilism. Fringe medicine and science. Conspiracy theories list. Alternative medical systems Mind—body intervention Biologically-based therapy Manipulative methods Energy therapy.

Traditional medicine. Adrenal fatigue Aerotoxic syndrome Candida hypersensitivity Chronic Lyme disease Electromagnetic hypersensitivity Heavy legs Leaky gut syndrome Multiple chemical sensitivity Wilson's temperature syndrome. Main article: Yin and yang. Main article: TCM model of the body. Main article: Qi. Main article: Zang-fu. Main article: Meridian Chinese medicine. Main article: Chinese herbology. See also: List of traditional Chinese medicines. This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources.

Please review the contents of the section and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Traditional Chinese medicines derived from the human body. Main articles: Acupuncture and Moxibustion. Main article: Tui na. Main article: Qigong. Main article: Cupping therapy.

Main article: Gua sha. Main article: Die-da. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Chinese food therapy. The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the English-speaking world and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main articles: Kampo and Kampo list. China portal History portal. May Wiener klinische Wochenschrift. ISSN PMC PMID July Bibcode : Natur.

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