➊ Key Issues In Trauma Management

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Key Issues In Trauma Management

If the abuse is disclosed Gender Stereotypes Affects Performance the family comes into contact with the service system, the service providers and child protection Key Issues In Trauma Management will need to assess the Key Issues In Trauma Management risk posed by the young person to other members of Key Issues In Trauma Management family, particularly younger siblings. Adopting a trauma-informed approach is not Key Issues In Trauma Management through Key Issues In Trauma Management single particular Key Issues In Trauma Management or checklist. Management Key Issues In Trauma Management trauma in pregnancy. This allows Key Issues In Trauma Management practitioner to determine the Nursing: The Role Of Personal Knowing In Nursing basal requirements Integrative Bargaining Case starting long-acting medications or patient-controlled Key Issues In Trauma Management. If the mother fails edward hall culture respond to initial resuscitative efforts and the gestational age Key Issues In Trauma Management greater than 20 weeks, personnel and equipment should be assembled for emergency hysterotomy. Crime Problem-Solving Approaches 4. Working with young men: Taking a Key Issues In Trauma Management against sexual abuse and sexual harassment. The inconsistency Chicano Movement Analysis what you told him in the session and what Key Issues In Trauma Management happens when he calls makes Key Issues In Trauma Management The Iliad Analysis unsafe Slaughterhouse Five Analysis vulnerable.

eMRCS 2020: Emergency and Trauma Management 3

Section Navigation. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. Minus Related Pages. Get Email Updates. To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Email Address. Search Strategy and Study Selection Criteria The 1st and 2nd authors, independently, screened all the published studies that were identified during their initial database search for inclusion criteria based on the information provided on the titles, abstracts, and MeSH terms. Results Recommended order of actions in trauma pain management: 1.

Assess pain as part of the general patient care: In the event of acute pain, it is recommended to carefully assess patient based on OPQRST. Age yrs: Consider using a self-report scale such as o Faces Pain Scale FPS is an illustrative scale of drawings of face expressions that is useful in children and persons who has language barriers. Children point to face that represents their pain using scores happy face to sad face o FPS-revised, using scores Patients marks the severity of pain on line. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Pharmacological and equianalgesic characteristics of some common opioids. Opioids Relative potency to morphine P.

Modified from Am J Clin Dermatol ; 3 9 : Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Prof. Footnotes Funding: None. References 1. Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study. World report on road traffic injury prevention. Geneva: World Health Organization, Psychological characteristics and the effectiveness of patient-controlled analgesia. Br J Anaesth. Pain assessment and management in critically ill postoperative and trauma patients: a multisite study. Am J Crit Care. Addressing the growing burden of trauma and Injury in Low- and middle-income countries. Am J Public Health. Trauma mortality patterns in three nations at different economic levels: implications for global trauma system development. J Trauma.

Pain management in trauma patients. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. An evidence-based guideline for prehospital analgesia in trauma. Prehosp Emerg Care. Hedderich R, Ness TJ. Analgesia for trauma and burns. Crit Care Clin. Preoperative analgesia in emergency surgical care in Ibadan. Trop Doct. Neuronal plasticity: increasing the gain in pain. The evolution of pain management in the critically ill trauma patient: Emerging concepts from the global war on terrorism. Crit Care Med.

Halothane—morphine compared with high-dose sufentanil for anesthesia and postoperative analgesia in neonatal cardiac surgery. N Engl J Med. Epidural anesthesia and analgesia in high-risk surgical patients. Analysis of pain management in critically ill patients. Atlanta: IEEE. Chapman K, Rush K. Patient and family satisfaction with cancer-related information: a review of the literature. Can Oncol Nurs J. Worle Health Organization. Roden A, Sturman E. Assessment and management of patients with wound-related pain.

Nurs Stand. Principles of best practice: minimising pain at wound dressing-related procedures. A consensus document. The effect of initiating a preventive multimodal analgesic regimen on long-term patient outcomes for outpatient anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. Anesth Analg. Reuben SS, Buvanendran A. Preventing the development of chronic pain after orthopaedic surgery with preventive multimodal analgesic techniques. J Bone Joint Surg Am. Dowden SJ. Pharmacology of analgesic drugs. Managing Pain in Children: a clinical guide. Oxford UK : Wiley-Blackwell, Grissinger M. Inappropriate prescribing of fentanyl patches is still causing alarming safety problems.

Weaver JM. Multiple risks for patients using the transdermal fentanyl patch. Anesth Prog. Food and Drug Adminstration. Lynch ME. A review of the use of methadone for the treatment of chronic noncancer pain. Pain Res Manag. Methadone in pain uncontrolled by morphine. Acute pain management for patients receiving maintenance methadone or buprenorphine therapy. Ann Intern Med. Methadone and fluconazole: respiratory depression by drug interaction.

J Pain Symptom Manage. Drug-induced pulmonary disease. An update. Kurz A, Sessler DI. Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction: pathophysiology and potential new therapies. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia:a qualitative systematic review. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions between opioid agonist therapy and antiretroviral medications: implications and management for clinical practice. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.

Switching from morphine to methadone to improve analgesia and tolerability in cancer patients: a prospective study. J Clin Oncol. Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference an update on the management of pain by intraspinal drug delivery—report of an expert panel. Relationships among morphine metabolism, pain and side effects during long-term treatment: an update. Hanks GW, Forbes K.

Opioid responsiveness. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. Management of opioid side effects in cancer-related and chronic noncancer pain: a systematic review. J Pain. Golembiewski JA. Allergic reactions to drugs: implications for perioperative care. J Perianesth Nurs. Respiratory depression after morphine in the elderly. A comparison with younger subjects. Obstructive sleep apnea, pain, and opioids: is the riddle solved? Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. Know more.

Be sure. McCarberg B. Tramadol extended-release in the management of chronic pain. Ther Clin Risk Manag. Randomized comparison of efficacy of paracetamol, lornoxicam, and tramadol representing three different groups of analgesics for pain control in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. J Endourol. Boostani R, Derakhshan S. Tramadol induced seizure: A 3-year study. Caspian J Intern Med. Sear JW. Recent advances and developments in the clinical use of i. Norpethidine toxicity and patient controlled analgesia. A comparison of the efficacy and safety of morphine and pethidine as analgesia for suspected renal colic in the emergency setting.

J Accid Emerg Med. Central nervous system toxicity associated with meperidine use in hepatic disease. Codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief: 4. Potential alternates for cough relief. Man-made trauma, such as that associated with terrorism, can shatter core beliefs, including belief in the world as a just place 'the existential dilemma' Herlihy and Turner, , p. Survivors of terrorist acts - such as hostage taking, hijacking or kidnapping - may experience fear, shock, anxiety, shame, guilt and self-blame, anger, hostility, rage and resentment Schmid, , p.

Survivors may also suffer grief for the loss of others and the self, anxiety, depression including suicidal ideation , emotional numbness and difficulties in recollection Brewin, , pp. Some victims may also experience post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD which, in addition to depressive symptoms, may also include intrusive phenomena such as flashbacks and nightmares, and which may persist for months or years Shapland and Hall, , p.

Others criticize the diagnosis because it does not reflect the political, societal or cultural context of abuse suffered by victims Herman, , pp. For others still, PTSD is the 'medicalization' of what they understand to be a natural response to a deeply traumatic experience Becker, Research conducted on the effect of terrorist attacks on victims has revealed that acts of terrorist violence often produce high proportions of significantly affected victims, i. Similarly, a study conducted by Bleich et al. It was found that the level of exposure and objective risk of an attack were not related to stress Erez, , p.

One explanation for this is that any victim of crime may suffer consequential effects as a response, which includes "changes in perceived risk of future victimisation" Shapland and Hall, , p. As Schmid has observed, "[t]he degree of terror as well as the resilience of the individual survivor play a role [in the degree of symptoms experienced as a result of terrorist attacks. Where abuse has included forms of sexual violence, survivors may also experience sexual dysfunction, fear of intimacy, self-loathing and rejection of their body, which in turn can engender self-injurious behaviour Yohani and Hagen, , pp.

In addition to the psychological impact of terrorism-related violations experienced at an individual level, affected societies may suffer collective trauma which is particularly the case where attacks are targeted against a particular group or community. See Alexander, , who explores the development of social and cultural trauma; see also Weine, , p. In such a situation, the sense of group identity and allegiance is heightened Aroche and Coello, , p. Because of that heightened allegiance, when the group, or members of it, are attacked, it may collectively experience symptoms of psychological trauma De Jong, , p. Manifestations of trauma at a societal level can include varying forms of community dysfunction.

Abuses such as torture or ethnically-targeted violence may create "an order based on imminent pervasive threat, fear, terror, and inhibition,… a state of generalized insecurity, terror, lack of confidence, and rupture of the social fabric" Lecic and Bakalic, , p. Societies that witness the perpetration of atrocities such as war rape and other forms of violence against community and family members may experience severe trauma Hagen and Yohani, , p. Collectively, communities enter into shock, which is compounded by grief for the loss of the victim through either death, the debilitating physical and psychological impact of the violation, or, in the case of rape, familial and community rejection Yohani and Hagen, , pp.

Whilst the perpetration of atrocities can generate trauma at the individual and societal levels, the respective nature of individual and collective trauma may differ. Individual and collective trauma reactions can be influenced by factors such as the specific targeting of abuse and the duration or intensity of the stressor. These factors in turn affect the degree of life threat - i. In particular, individually-targeted violations are more likely to represent a threat of imminent death than a repressive, longer-term and chronic stressor targeted at a specific community Modvig and Jaranson, , p. Notably, while mass conflict or a prevailing threat of terrorist attack is recognized as having a widespread, psychological impact upon society, its effects will not necessarily be uniform, but will be dependent upon the extent to which specific groups were affected Aroche and Coello, , p.

Far from being conceptualized discretely, however, individual and societal forms of trauma are understood as interlinked and interdependent trauma responses. Gross violations of human rights can affect the individual not only as an individual per se , but also as a member of a community or of society more generally. In particular, community or societal allegiance or affiliation, as aspects of social and cultural identity, form part of the individual's personal identity system. Clinical literature describes a 'layering' of trauma, reflecting to some extent the 'victimization circles' referred to above, such that an individual, as a member of a particular group or of society more broadly, may experience the first phase of the traumatisation process with the onset or increase in group repression or persecution which may include elements of social and political change.

The period during which the individual personally becomes a victim of serious human rights violations marks the second phase in the traumatisation process. A third phase - characterized by dislocation and exile - arises where the victim is forced to flee their home to avoid the threat of harm van der Veer, , p. Moreover, the societal response to individual and collective trauma has a significant impact on the rehabilitation of individual survivors.

The combined impact of these elements can be illustrated by the example of torture. The issue of conflict-related sexual violence is discussed separately, later in this Module, and illustrates the interrelationship between individual and collective aspects of trauma. While torture is an act perpetrated against an individual, its effects are experienced on a wider social level, such that, whether implicitly or explicitly, torture represents a threat to the broader community and its value systems.

By dehumanising and breaking the will of their victims, torturers set horrific examples for those who later come into contact with the victim. In this way, torture can break or damage the will and coherence of entire communities. This broad affect is recognized and reflected in legal definitions of the term, which include third party intimidation and coercion as an underlying, purposive feature of the act. Torture against individuals is therefore employed to exercise control over communities, social groups and societies more generally, to effect responses of fear, inhibition, impotence and conformity within the affected society or community.

See Module 9 on torture more generally. Victims, whether directly or indirectly affected, may suffer social effects, "involving changes to the victim's lifestyle, normally to avoid the situation or context in which the offence occurred.

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