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In one case the deviation from the required size appears to be as much as percent. The establishment of regular trade routes within the Aegean led to increased movement of goods; consequently a regular exchange of local, luxury and surplus goods, including metals, would have become feasible as a result of the advances in transport technology.
The increased demand for standardised exchanges, inextricably linked to commercial transactions, might have been one of the main factors which led to the standardisation of pottery production. Thus, the whole network of ceramic production and exchange would have depended on specific regional economic conditions, and would reflect the socio-economic structure of prehistoric Akrotiri. Questions Choose the correct letter, A, B. What does die writer say about items of pottery excavated at Akrotiri? There was very little duplication. They would have met a big variety of needs.
Most of them had been imported from other places. The intended purpose of each piece was unclear. The assumption that pottery from Akrotiri was produced by specialists is partly ' based on A. The discovery of kilns. The central location of workshops. The sophistication of decorative patterns. The wide range of shapes represented. Questions Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-F, below. Write the correct letter, A-F. The discovery of a collection of metal discs. The size and type of the sailing ships in use. Variations in the exact shape and thickness of similar containers. The physical characteristics of workmen. Marks found on wine containers. The variety of commodities for which they would have been used.
Questions Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3? There are plans to excavate new areas of the archaeological site in the near future. Some of the evidence concerning pottery production in ancient Akrotiri comes from written records. Pots for transporting liquids would have held no more than about 20 litres. It would have been hard for merchants to calculate how much wine was on their ships. The capacity of containers intended to hold the same amounts differed by up to 20 percent. Question Choose the correct letter, A. What does the writer say about the standardisation of container sizes? Containers which looked the same from the outside often varied in capacity.
The instruments used to control container size were unreliable. The unsystematic use of different types of clay resulted in size variations. Potters usually discarded containers which were of a non-standard size. What is probably the main purpose of Reading Passage 3? To evaluate the quality of pottery containers found in prehistoric Akrotiri. To suggest how features of pottery production at Akrotiri reflected other developments in the region. To outline the development of pottery-making skills in ancient Greece. To describe methods for storing and transporting household goods in prehistoric societies. Leatherback turtles follow the general sea turtle body plan of having a large, flattened, round body with two pairs of very large flippers and a short tail.
Like other sea turtles, the leatherback's flattened forelimbs are adapted for swimming in the open ocean. Claws are absent from both pairs of flippers. The Leatherback's flippers arc the largest in proportion to its body among extant sea turtles. Leatherback's front flippers can grow up to 2. As the last surviving member of its family, the leatherback turtle has several distinguishing characteristics that differentiate it from other sea turtles. Its most notable feature is that it lacks the bony carapace of the other extant sea turtles. During the past month, four turtles have washed up along Irish coasts from Wexford to Kerry. These turtles arc more typical of warmer waters and only occur in Irish waters when they stray off course.
It is likely that they may have originated from Florida, America. Two specimens have been taken to Coastal and Marine Resources Centre stored at the National Maritime College , University College Cork, where a necropsy post mortem for animals will be conducted to establish their age, sex and their exact origin. During this same period, two leatherback turtles were found in Scotland, and a rare Kemp's Ridley turtle was found in Wales, thus making it an exceptional month for stranded turtles in Ireland and the UK.
In the water, their path is greatly affected by powerful currents. Despite their limited vision, and lack of landmarks in the open water, turtles are able to retrace their migratory paths. However, Loggerhead turtles are not normally found in Irish waters, because water temperatures here are far too cold for their survival. Instead, adult loggerheads prefer the warmers waters of the Mediterranean, the Caribbean and North America's east coast. The four turtles that were found have probably originated from the North American population of loggerheads.
However it will require genetic analysis to confirm this assumption. It is thought that after leaving their nesting beach as hatchlings when they measure 4. This remarkable round trip may take many years during which these tiny turtles grow by several centimetres a year. Loggerheads may circulate around the North Atlantic several times before they settle in the coastal waters of Florida or the Caribbean. These four turtles were probably on their way around the Atlantic when they strayed a bit too far north from the Gulf Stream.
Once they did, their fate was sealed, as the cooler waters of the North East Atlantic are too cold for loggerheads unlike leatherback turtles which have many anatomical and physiological adaptations to enable them to swim in our seas. Once in cool waters, the body of a loggerhead begins to shut down as they get 'cold stunned', then get hypothermia and die. Leatherbacks are in immanent danger of extinction. A critical factor among others is the harvesting of eggs from nests. Valued as a food delicacy, Leatherback eggs are falsely touted to have aphrodisiacal properties in some cultures.
The leatherback, unlike the Green Sea turtle, is not often killed for its meat; however, the increase in human populations coupled with the growing black market trade has escalated their egg depletion. Scientists have estimated that there are only about 35, Leatherback turtles in the world. We are often unable to understand the critical impact a species has on the environment—that is, until that species becomes extinct. Some scientists now speculate that the Leatherback may play an important role in the recovery of diminishing fish populations. Since the Leatherback consumes its weight in jellyfish per day, it helps to keep Jellyfish populations in check. Jellyfish consume large quantities of fish larvae. The rapid decline in Leatherback populations over the last 50 years has been accompanied by a significant increase in jellyfish and a marked decrease in fish in our oceans.
Saving sea turtles is an International endeavor. Question Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B-G from the list of headings below. Write appropriate numbers i-x in boxes 1 -6 on your answer sheet. NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all. List of Headings i. Sea turtles are found in unusual locations ii. Unique features of the Leatherbacks iii. Methods used for routes tracking v. Predict the migration routes vi. Remains multiplicity within the species vii. The progress of hatching viii. The fate of the lost turles ix.
How trips suppose to look like? Factors leading to population decline 1. Paragraph c 3. Paragraph D 4. Paragraph E 5. Paragraph F 6. Paragraph G Question 7 Choose words from the passage to answer the questions How many Leatherback turtles are there in the world? What is the most noticeable difference between other sea turtles and leatherbacks? What candle therback turtles to die in Irish waters? Where did the four turtles probably come from? By which means can sea turtles retrace their migratory paths? For what purpose are Green Sea turtles killed by people? What kind of species will benefits from a decline in Leatherback populations? Section 2 Corporate Social Responsibility Broadly speaking, proponents of CSR have used four arguments to make their case: moral obligation, sustainability, license to operate, and reputation.
An excellent definition was developed in the s by Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland and used by the World Business Council for Sustainable Devebpment "Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Finally, reputation is used by many companies to justify CSR initiatives on the grounds that they will improve a company's image, strengthen its brand, enliven morale, and even raise the value of its stock. To advance CSR, we must root it in a broad understanding of the interrelationship between a corporation and society while at the same time anchoring it in the strategies and activities of specific companies.
Education, health care, and equal opportunity are essential to a productive workforce. Safe products and working conditions not only attract customers but lower the internal costs of accidents. Efficient utilization of land, water, energy, and other natural resources makes business more productive. Good government, the rub of law, and property rights are essential for efficiency and innovation.
Strong regulatory standards protect both consumers and competitive companies from exploitation. Ultimately, a healthy society creates expanding demand for business, as more human needs are met and aspirations grow. Any business that pursues its ends at the expense of the society in which it operates will find its success to be illusory and ultimately temporary. At the same time, a healthy society needs successful companies. No social program can rival the business sector when it comes to creating the jobs, wealth, and innovation that improve standards of living and social conditions over time.
Asbestos, now understood as a serious health risk, was thought to be safe in the early s, given the scientific knowledge then available. Evidence of its risks gradually mounted for more than 50 years before any company was held liable for the harms it can cause. No longer can companies be content to monitor only the obvious social impacts of today. Without a careful process for identifying evolving social effects of tomorrow, firms may risk their very survival.
Instead, each company must select issues that intersect with its particular business. Other social agendas are best left to those companies in other industries, NGOs, or government institutions that are better positioned to address them. The essential test that should guide CSR is not whether a cause is worthy but whether it presents an opportunity to create shared value— that is, a meaningful benefit for society that is also valuable to the business.
Addressing social issues by creating shared value will lead to self-sustaining solutions that do not depend on private or government subsidies. When a well-run business applies its vast resources, expertise, and management talent to problems that it understands and in which it has a stake, it can have a greater impact on social good than any other institution or philanthropic organization. The best corporate citizenship initiatives involve far more than writing a check: They specify clear, measurable goals and track results over time. Effective corporate citizenship initiatives such as this one create goodwill and improve relations with local governments and other important constituencies.
Their effect is inherently limited, however. Community colleges, with an enrollment of Microsoft recognizes, however, that community colleges face special challenges: IT curricula are not standardized, technology used in classrooms is often outdated, and there are no systematic professional development programs to keep faculty up to date. In addition to contributing money and products, Microsoft sent employee volunteers to colleges to assess needs, contribute to curriculum development, and create faculty development institutes.
Note that in this case, volunteers and assigned staff were able to use their core professional skills to address a social need, a far cry from typical volunteer programs. Microsoft has achieved results that have benefited many communities while having a direct—and potentially significant—impact on the company. At the heart of any strategy is a unique value proposition: a set of needs a company can meet for its chosen customers that others cannot. The most strategic CSR occurs when a company adds a social dimension to its value proposition, making social impact integral to the overall strategy. Consider Whole Foods Market, whose value proposition is to sell organic, natural and healthy food products to customers who are passionate about food and the environment.
The company's sourcing emphasizes purchases from local farmers through each store's procurement process. Buyers screen out foods containing any of nearly common ingredients that the company considers unhealthy or environmentally damaging. The same standards apply to products made internally. Stores are constructed using a minimum of virgin raw materials. Spoiled produce and biodegradable waste are trucked to regional centers for composting. Whole Foods' vehicles are being converted to run on biofuels. Even the cleaning products used in its stores are environmentally friendly. And through its philanthropy, the company has created the Animal Compassion Foundation to develop more natural and humane ways of raising farm animals.
From Harvard business review Questions The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-G Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-G from the list below. Write the correct number, i-xi, in boxes on your answer sheet. How CSR may help one business to expand ii. CSR in many aspects of a company's business iii. A CSR initiative without a financial gain iv. Lack of action by the state of social issues v. Drives or pressures motivate companies to address CSR vi. Companies applying CSR should be selective viii. Reasons that business and society benefit each other Paragraph A Paragraph B Paragraph C Paragraph D Paragraph E Paragraph F Paragraph G Questions Summary Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using no more than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet. Promotion of CSR requires the understanding of interdependence between business and society. Restrictions imposed by government and companies both protect consumers from being treated unfairly. Improvement of the safety standard can reduce the Similarly society becomes pool of more human needs and aspirations. Questions Use the information in the passage to match the companies listed A-C with opinions or deeds below.
Write the appropriate letters A, B or C in boxes 26 on your answer sheet. List of companies A. General Electronics B. Microsoft C. Whole foods market NB: you may use any letter more than once The disposable waste The way company purchases as goods Helping the undeveloped Excessive cravings do not necessarily involve physical substances. Gambling can become compulsive; sex can become obsessive. Most people admit to having a love-bate relationship with it. This occurs not only during dull conversations but during reasonably interesting ones just as well. Scientists have been studying the effects of television for decades, generally focusing on whether watching violence on TV correlates with being violent in real life.
Less attention has been paid to the basic allure of the small screen—the medium, as opposed to the message. Psychologists and psychiatrists formally define substance dependence as a disorder characterized by criteria that include spending a great deal of time using the substance; using it more often than one intends; thinking about reducing use or making repeated unsuccessful efforts to reduce use; giving up important social, family or occupational activities to use it; and reporting withdrawal symptoms when one stops using it. All these criteria can apply to people who watch a lot of television. That does not mean that watching television, in itself, is problematic. Television can teach and amuse; it can reach aesthetic heights; it can provide much needed distraction and escape.
The difficulty arises when people strongly sense that they ought not to watch as much as they do and yet find themselves strangely unable to reduce their viewing. Some knowledge of how the medium exerts its pull may help heavy viewers gain better control over their lives. The amount of time people spend watching television is astonishing. On average, individuals in the industrialized world devote three hours a day to the pursuit—fully half of their leisure time, and more than on any single activity save work and sleep. To some commentators, this devotion means simply that people enjoy TV and make a conscious decision to watch it. But if that is the whole story, why do so many people experience misgivings about how much they view?
In Gallup polls in and , two out of five adult respondents and seven out of 10 teenagers said they spent too much time watching TV. Other surveys have consistently shown that roughly 10 percent of adults call themselves TV addicts. What is it about TV that has such a hold on US? It is part of our evolutionary heritage, a built- in sensitivity to movement and potential predatory threats. In Byron Reeves of Stanford University, Esther Thorson of the University of Missouri and their colleagues began to study whether the simple formal features of television-cuts, edits, zooms, pans, sudden noises—activate the orienting response, thereby keeping attention on the screen.
It is the form, not the content, of television that is unique. In ads, action sequences and music videos, formal features frequently come at a rate of one per second, thus activating the orienting response continuously. In one of their studies, participants watched a program and then filled out a score sheet. Increasing the frequency of edits defined here as a change from one camera angle to another in the same visual scene improved memory recognition, presumably because it focused attention on the screen. Increasing the frequency of cuts—changes to a new visual scene-had a similar effect but only up to a point. If the number of cuts exceeded 10 in two minutes, recognition dropped off sharply.
Producers of educational television for children have found that formal features can help learning. But increasing the rate of cuts and edits eventually overloads the brain. Music videos and commercials that use rapid intercutting of unrelated scenes are designed to hold attention more than they are to convey information. People may remember the name of the product or band, but the details of the ad itself float in one ear and out the other. The orienting response is overworked. Viewers still attend to the screen, but they feel tired and worn out, with little compensating psychological reward. Our ESM findings show much the same thing. Sometimes the memory of the product is very subtle.
Many ads today are deliberately oblique: they have an engaging story line, but it is hard to tell what they are trying to sell. Afterward you may not remember the product consciously. Yet advertisers believe that if they have gotten your attention, when you later go to the store you will feel better or more comfortable with a given product because you have a vague recollection of having heard of it. You should spend about 20 minutes on question , which are based on reading passage 3 on the following pages. Questions Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage?
Even researcher find sometimes it is more interesting in watching TV than talking with others in personal experience Information medium as TV has always been the priority for scientific research. Children do not know why they exercise too little. Write the correct letters in boxes on your answer sheet. Match each researcher with the correct statements. Write the correct letter A-G in boxes on your answer sheets. It is the specific media formal characteristic that counts. TV distraction shows human physical reaction to a new and prompted stimulus C. Conveying information is the most important thing. It is hard to ignore the effects of TV.
Whether people can remember deeper of the content relates with the format. The heart rate remains stable when watching. Clinically reliance on TV does not meet the criteria of an addiction. Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet TV is becoming a worldwide According to some surveys, a small group even claim themselves as One researcher believes that this attraction comes from our human instinct, described as The reality was that in the 18th century no one had ever made a clock that could suffer the great rolling and pitching of a ship and the large changes in temperature whilst still keeping time accurately enough to be of any use.
Indeed, most of the scientific community thought such clock impossibility. The longitude is a measure of how far around the world one has come from home and has no naturally occurring base line like the equator. The crew of a given ship was naturally only concerned with how far round they were from their own particular home base. Even when in the middle of the ocean, with no land in sight, knowing this longitude position is very simple in theory. The key to knowing how far around the world you are from home is to know, at that very moment, what time it is back home. A comparison with your local time easily found by checking the position of the Sim will then tell you the time difference between you and home, and thus how far round the Earth you are from home.
The angular position of Moon and other bright stars was recorded in three-hour intervals of Greenwich Time. In order to determine longitude, sailors had to measure the angle between Moon centre and a given star - lunar distance - together with height of both planets using the naval sextant. Time corresponding to Greenwich Time was determined using the nautical almanac. Then the difference between the obtained time and local time served for calculation in longitude from Greenwich. The obvious and again simple answer is that he takes an accurate clock with him, which he sets to home time before leaving. If the solution was to be by timekeeper and there were other methods since the prize was offered for any solution to the problem , then the timekeeping required to achieve this goal would have to be within 2.
During the latter part of his early career, he worked with his younger brother James. Their first major project was a revolutionary turret clock for the stables at Brocklesby Park, seat of the Pelham family. The clock was revolutionary because it required no lubrication. Rather than concentrating on improvements to the oil, Harrison designed a clock which didn't need it. In Harrison created a description and drawings for a proposed marine clock to compete for the Longitude Prize and went to London seeking financial assistance. He presented his ideas to Edmond Halley, the Astronomer Royal.
Halley referred him to George Graham, the country's foremost clockmaker. He must have been impressed by Harrison, for Graham personally loaned Harrison money to build a model of his marine clock. He demonstrated it to members of the Royal Society who spoke on his behalf to the Board of Longitude. The clock was the first proposal that the Board considered to be worthy of a sea trial. In , G. After several attempts to design a betterment of HI, Harrison believed that the ' solution to the longitude problem lay in an entirely different design. H4 is completely different from the other three timekeepers.
It looks like a very large pocket watch. It was a remarkable achievement but it would be some time before the Board of Longitude was sufficiently satisfied to award Harrison the prize. John Hadley, an English mathematician, developed sextant, who was a competitor of Harrison at that time for the luring prize. A sextant is an instrument used for measuring angles, for example between the sun and the horizon, so that the position of a ship or aeroplane can be calculated. Making this measurement is known as sighting the object, shooting the object, or taking a sight and it is an essential part of celestial navigation. The angle, and the time when it was measured, can be used to calculate a position line on a nautical or aeronautical chart.
A sextant can also be used to measure the Lunar distance between the moon and another celestial object e. The majority within this next generation of chronometer pioneers were English, but the story is by no means wholly that of English achievement. One French name, Pierre Le Roy of Paris, stands out as a major presence in the early history of the chronometer. It was Eamshaw who created the final form of chronometer escapement, the spring detent escapement, and finalized the format and the production system for the marine chronometer, making it truly an article of commerce, and a practical means of safer navigation at sea over the next century and half.
Questions The reading Passage has ten paragraphs A-I. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter A- I, in boxes on your answer sheet. NB: you may use any letter more than once 1. It is with no great effort by sailors to calculate the position when in the center of the ocean theoretically. To determine the longitude, a measurement of distance from moon to a given star is a must. In theory, by calculating the longitude degrees covered by a sail journey, the distance between the start and the end points can be obtained. Hundred years ago, sailors tried to identify their time by checking the sun or stars, but the trouble was that they did need a reliable clock which showed time of And the timekeeper required would be to precisely tell a tangible time lapse confined to An extraordinary craftsman, Harrison, once created a novel clock which did not rely on Later on, competitive mode of Base on Harrison's effort, Earns haw eventually implement key components for Section 2 Father of modern management A.
Widely considered as the father of "modem management," he wrote 39 books and countless scholarly and popular articles exploring how humans are organized in all sectors of society—business, government and the nonprofit world. His writings have predicted many of the major developments of the late twentieth century, including privatization and decentralization; the rise of Japan to a world economic power; the decisive importance of marketing; and the emergence of the information society with its necessity of lifelong learning. Drucker has said that writing is die foundation of everything he does. In , he published his first book, which was written in Europe. In , before the United States entered World War n, he wrote The Future of Industrial Man, in which he presented his social vision for the postwar world.
In , General Motors asked Drucker to study its management practices. Drucker accepted and spent 18 months researching and writing the book. Concept of the Corporation. The concepts Drucker introduced in the s and s have endured. In , Drucker wrote his first book that taught people how to manage. Management by objectives require managers to establish goals for theft subordinates and devise means of measuring results. Workers are then left alone to perform as they will and measure theft performance. Drucker wrote, "It is not possible to be effective unless one first decides what one wants to accomplish. He went on to explain that every worker must be given the tools "to appraise himself, rather than be appraised and controlled from the outside.
Management by objectives has become an accepted business concept and is probably Drucker's most important contribution. Drucker issued challenges to junior, middle and senior management: 'The very term "middle management" is becoming meaningless [as some] will have to learn how to work with people over whom they have no direct line control, to work transnationally, and to create, maintain, and run systems-none of which are traditionally middle management tasks. Drucker interviewed executives and workers, visited plants, and attended board meetings. While the book focused on General Motors, Drucker went on to discuss the industrial corporation as a social institution and economic policy in the postwar era.
He introduced previously unknown concepts such as cooperation between labor and management, decentralization of management, and viewing workers as resources rather than costs. Drucker saw people as a resource, and considered that they would be more able to satisfy customers if they had more involvement in then jobs and gained some satisfaction from doing them. This concept of management by objectives forms the keynote of his landmark The Practice of Management. He referred to decentralization as 'a system of local self government, in which central management tells division managers what to do, but not how to do it. The young executives are given the freedom to make decisions — and mistakes — and learn from the experience.
Top leaders at General Motors disliked the book and discouraged their executives from reading it. Many other American executives criticized Concept for its challenge to management authority. Drucker wasn't immune to criticism. The Wall Street Journal researched several of his lectures in and reported that he was sometimes loose with facts. Drucker was off the mark, for example, when he told an audience that English was the official language for all employees at Japan's Mitsui trading company.
And he was known for his prescience. Specifically, critics say that the system is difficult to implement, and that companies often wind up overemphasizing control, as opposed to fostering creativity, to meet their goals. Drucker didn't shy away from controversy, either. Throughout his career, Drucker expanded his position that management was "a liberal art " and he infused his management advice with interdisciplinary lessons including history, sociology, psychology, philosophy, culture and religion. He also strongly believed that all institutions, including those in the private sector, had a responsibility for the whole society.
If the managers of our major institutions, especially in business, do not take responsibility for the common good, no one else can or will. Others include a decreasing birth rate in developed countries, a shift in population from rural to urban centers, shifts in distribution of disposable income and global competitiveness. Drucker believes these changes will have a tremendous impact on business. Business "gums" have come and gone during the last 50 years, but Drucker's message continues to inspire managers.
In Managing for the Future: The s and Beyond , Drucker discussed the emergence of the "knowledge worker" — whose resources include specialized learning or competency rather than land, labor or other forms of capital. Questions Reading Passage 2 has 6 paragraphs A-F. Choose die correct heading for paragraphs A-F from the list of headings below. Write the correct number: i-x, in boxes on your answer sheet List of Headings i. Introducing new management concepts to postwar era ii. Ideas that stood the test of time iii. Early publications iv. Shifting the focus of management in modem manufactures v. Thinker and scholar with world-wide popularity vi. The changing role of employees in management viii. Find fault with Drucker ix. Paragraph c Drucker believed the employees should enjoy the same status as the employers in a company Drucker strongly support that economists of schools have resources to explain the problems of modem economies at least in a macroeconomics scope Write your answers in boxes 24 and 25 on your answer sheet.
Managers should be responsible for the common good of the whole society. Young executives should be given chances to start from low level jobs C. More emphasis should be laid on fostering the development of the union. Management should facilitate workers with tools of self-appraisal instead of controlling them from the outside. Write your answers in boxes 26 and 27 on your answer sheet. Which TWO of the following are mentioned in the passage as criticisms to Drucker and his views? His lectures are too broad and lack of being precise and accurate about the facts, C. His concepts helped corporate executives but not average workers. His ideas are sometimes impractical and result in opposite outcomes.
He was overstating the case for knowledge workers when warning businesses to get prepared. Section 3 Extinct: the Giant Deer Toothed cats, mastodons, giant sloths, woolly rhinos, and many other big, shaggy mammals are widely thought to have died out around the end of the last ice age, some 10, years ago. The Irish elk is also known as the giant deer Megaloceros giganteus. Analysis of ancient bones and teeth by scientists based in Britain and Russia show the huge herbivore survived until about 5, B. The research team says this suggests additional factors, besides climate change, probably hastened the giant deer's eventual extinction. The factors could include hunting or habitat destruction by humans.
The Irish elk, so-called because its well-preserved remains are often found in lake sediments under peat bogs in Ireland, first appeared about , years ago in Europe and central Asia. Through a combination of radiocarbon dating of skeletal remains and the mapping of locations where the remains were unearthed, the team shows the Irish elk was widespread across Europe before the last "big freeze. He added that pollen analysis indicates the region then became very dry in response to further climactic change, leading to the loss of important food plants.
Hunting by humans has often been put forward as a contributory cause of extinctions of the Pleistocene mega fauna. The team, though, said their new date for the Irish elk's extinction hints at an additional human-made problem—habitat destruction. Lister said, "We haven't got just hunting 7, years ago—this was also about the time the first Neolithic people settled in the region. They were farmers who would have cleared the land. Meanwhile, Lister cast doubt on another possible explanation for the deer's demise—the male's huge antlers. Some scientists have suggested this exaggerated feature—the result of females preferring stags with the largest antlers, possibly because they advertised a male's fitness —contributed to the mammal's downfall.
They say such antlers would have been a serious inconvenience in the dense forests that spread northward after the last ice age. But, Lister said, "That's a hard argument to make, because the deer previously survived perfectly well through wooded interglacials [warmer periods between ice ages]. High amounts of calcium and phosphate compounds are required to form antlers, and therefore large quantities of these minerals are required for the massive structures of the Irish Elk. The males and male deer in general met this requirement partly from their bones, replenishing them from food plants after the antlers were grown or reclaiming the nutrients from discarded antlers as has been observed in extant deer.
Thus, in the antler growth phase. Giant Deer were suffering from a condition similar to osteoporosis. The extinction of megafauna around the world was almost completed by the end of the last ice age. It is believed that megafauna initially came into existence in response to glacial conditions and became extinct with the onset of warmer climates. Tropical and subtropical areas have experienced less radical climatic change. The most dramatic of these changes was the transformation of a vast area of north Africa into the world's largest desert. Significantly, Africa escaped major faunal extinction as did tropical and sub-tropical Asia. The human exodus from Africa and our entrance into the Americas and Australia were also accompanied by climate change. Australia's climate changed from cold-dry to warm-dry.
As a result, surface water became scarce. Most inland lakes became completely dry or dry in the warmer seasons. Most large, predominantly browsing animals lost their habitat and retreated to a narrow band in eastern Australia, where there was permanent water and better vegetation. Some animals may have survived until about years ago. If people have been in Australia for up to 60 years, then megafauna must have co-existed with humans for at least 30 years.
Regularly hunted modem kangaroos survived not only 10 years of Aboriginal hunting, but also an onslaught of commercial shooters. The group of scientists led by A. Stuart focused on northern Eurasia, which he was taking as Europe, plus Siberia, essentially, where they 've got the best data that animals became extinct in Europe during the Late Pleistocene. Some cold-adapted animals, go through into the last part of the cold stage, and then become extinct up there.
So you've actually got two phases of extinction. Now, neither of these coincide — these are Neanderthals here being replaced by modem humans. There's no obvious coincidence between the arrival of humans or climatic change alone and these extinctions. There's a climatic change here, so there's a double effect here. Again, as animals come through to the last part of the cold stage, here there's a fundamental change in the climate, reorganization of vegetation, and the combination of the climatic change and the presence of humans -- of advanced Paleolithic humans — causes this wave of extinction. There's a profound difference between the North American data and that of Europe, which summarize that the extinctions in northern Eurasia, in Europe, are moderate and staggered, and in North America severe and sudden.
And these things relate to the differences in the timing of human arrival. The extinctions follow from human predation, but only at times of fundamental changes in the environment. Questions Answer the questions below. What kind of physical characteristics eventually contributed to the extinction of Irish elk? What kind of nutrient substance needed in maintaining the huge size of Irish elk? What geographical evidence suggested the advent of human resulted in the extinction of Irish elk? Questions Matching choose the letter A-D and fill in box A. Eurasia B. Australia C. Asia D. Which statement is true according the Stuart team's finding? Neanderthals rather than modem humans caused the extinction in Europe B.
Paleolithic humans in Europe along kill the big animals such as Giant deer C. Onion growers in eastern Oregon are adopting a system that saves water and keeps topsoil in place, while producing the highest quality "super colossal" onions. Pear growers in southern Oregon have reduced their use of some of the most toxic pesticides by up to two-thirds, and are still producing top-quality pears. These are some of the results Oregon growers have achieved in collaboration with Oregon State University OSU researchers as they test new farming methods including integrated pest management IPM.
Nationwide, however, IFM has not delivered results comparable to those in Oregon. A recent U. S General Accounting Office GAO report indicates that while integrated pest management can result in dramatically reduced pesticide use, the federal government has been lacking in effectively promoting that goal and implementing IPM. Farmers also blame the government for not making the new options of pest management attractive.
Green action groups disagree about the safety issue. Department of Agriculture and Oregon farmers to help develop agricultural systems that will save water and soil, and reduce pesticides. In response to the GAO report, the Centre is putting even more emphasis on integrating research and farming practices to improve Oregon agriculture environmentally and economically. The work coming from OSU researchers must be adopted in the field and not simply languish in scientific journals. In Oregon, growers and scientists are working together to instigate new practices. For example, a few years ago scientists at OSU's Malheur Experiment Station began testing a new drip irrigation system to replace old ditches that wasted water and washed soil and fertilizer into streams.
The new system cut water and fertilizer use by half, kept topsoil in place and protected water quality. In addition, the new system produced crops of very large onions, rated "super colossal" and highly valued by the restaurant industry and food processors. The new practices benefit the environment and give the growers their success. OSU researchers in Malheur next tested straw mulch and found that it successfully held soil in place and kept the ground moist with less irrigation.
In addition, and unexpectedly, the scientists found that the mulched soil created a home for beneficial beetles and spiders that prey on onion thrips - a notorious pest in commercial onion fields - a discovery that could reduce the need for pesticides. OSU researchers throughout the state have been working to reduce dependence on broad spectrum chemical sprays that are toxic to many kind of organisms, including humans. Picture perfect pears are an important product in Oregon and traditionally they have required lots of chemicals. In recent years, the industry has faced stiff competition from overseas producers, so any new methods that growers adopt must make sense economically as well as environmentally.
Hilton is testing a growth regulator that interferes with the molting of codling moth larvae. Another study used pheromone dispensers to disrupt codling moth mating. These and other methods of integrated pest management have allowed pear growers to reduce their use of organophosphates by two-thirds and reduce all other synthetic pesticides by even more and still produce top-quality pears. These and other studies around the state are part of the effort of the IPPC to find alternative farming practices that benefit both the economy and the environment.
Questions Use the information in the passage to match the people listed A-G with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-G in boxes on your answer sheet. NB you may use any letter more than once A. Patrick Leahy C. Bill Bowler D. Paul Jepson E. Art Pimms F. Steve Black G. Rick Hilton 1. There is a double-advantage to the new techniques. The work on developing these alternative techniques is not finished. Eating food that has had chemicals used in its production is dangerous to our health. Changing current farming methods into a new one is not a cheap process. Results have exceeded the anticipated goal. The research done should be translated into practical projects. The U. Expectations of end users of agricultural products affect the products.
Integrated Pest Management has generally been regarded as a success in j the across the US. Oregon farmers of apples and pears have been promoted as successful examples of Integrated Pest Management. The IPPC uses scientists from different organisations globally Shaw mulch experiments produced unplanned benefits. The apple industry is now facing a lot of competition from abroad. In the French minister of education, facing limited resources for schooling, sought a way to separate die unable from the merely lazy.
Alfred Binet got the job of devising selection principles and his brilliant solution put a stamp on the study of intelligence and was the forerunner of intelligence tests still used today, he developed a thirty-problem test in , which tapped several abilities related to intellect, such as judgment and reasoning, the test determined a given child's mental age', the test previously established a norm for children of a given physical age. A large disparity in the wrong direction e. This message was however lost, and caused many problems and misunderstanding later. Although Binet's test was popular, it was a bit inconvenient to deal with a variety of physical and mental ages. So in Wilhelm Stem suggested simplifying this by reducing die two to a single number, he divided the mental age by the physical age, and multiplied the result by An average child, irrespective of age, would score Terman, professor of psychology and education of Stanford university, in The practical side of psychometrics the development and use of tests became widespread quite early, by , when Einstein published his grand theory of relativity, mass-scale testing was already in use.
The military had to build up an army very quickly; it had two million inductees to sort out. Who would become officers and who enlisted men? Psychometricians developed two intelligence tests that helped sort all these people out, at least to some extent, this was the first major use of testing to decide who lived and who died, as officers were a lot safer on the battlefield, the tests themselves were given under horrendously bad conditions, and the examiners seemed to lack commonsense, a lot of recruits simply had no idea what to do and in several sessions most inductees scored zero!
The examiners also came up with the quite astounding conclusion from the testing that the average American adult's intelligence was equal to that of a thirteen-year-old! Intelligence testing enforced political and social prejudice, their results were used to argue that Jews ought to be kept out of the united states because they were so intelligently inferior that they would pollute the racial mix; and blacks ought not to be allowed to breed at all. And so abuse and test bias controversies continued to plaque psychometrics. Write the correct letter A-G in boxes on your answer sheet. Questions Choose the correct letter, A, B, c or D. Officers B. Normal Soldiers C. Examiners D. Submarine drivers.
Give credit to the contribution of Binet in IQ test B. Computer technology was supposed to replace paper. But that hasn't happened. Every country in the Western world uses more paper today, on a per- capita basis, than it did ten years ago. Top reviews from the United States. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Verified Purchase. This is my first book by Oliver Sacks. I must admit I was expecting more science, less "novel. Sacks writes in a literary style and loves multiple complex sentences that make the argument indeed richer, but also intricate.
So, if you want a simple reading, you'll be a little surprised. The book consists of four parts: 1 Losses 2 Execess 3 Transports 4 The World of the Simple Each section relates to a different set of neurological problems resulting in a mental disorder. Sacks describes cases of people whose neurological disorders outfitted with extraordinary abilities, such as "seeing the numbers," eidetic memory, an excellent sense of smell, etc. In his book, Dr. Sacks often refers to the study of well-known Russian psychologist A. Sacks style of reasoning, not everyone will like it. Besides, there are many similar books, though written from a different perspective than neurological such as "Tales from the Couch: A Clinical Psychologist's True Stories of Psychopathology" by Dr.
Bob Wendorf. Oliver Sacks was a neurologist who wrote several different best-sellers that delved into further understanding the capacity of the human brain. He wrote his best-sellers using his collection of cases of patients who suffered from different neurological conditions. Among one of his best sellers is the book The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat and Other Clinical Tales where he compiled several of his most interesting clinical tales using his former patients that suffered from a variety of different neurological disorders.
In his book, he divided the cases into four different categories; loses, excesses, transports, and simple. This review will further analyze the title of the book, the different neurological disorders that are divided into the four different categories which will then be reviewed categorially by analyzing the ways in which neuroscience is present in the book. Sacks quickly introduces us to the patient responsible of the title of the book during the first chapter. Sacks chose Dr. P as his first patient as his book title because it sets the precedent to the rest patients in his collection of clinical tails.
On the contrary, it helps set the tone for the rest of the clinical tales which shows stories about neurological disorders just as wild as Dr. For the most part, the book was very well written and easy to understand. Since the book was divided into four different categories, it allowed for the book to be extremely organized because the cases either fell into a losses, excesses, transports and simple categories. The first part of the book is losses, where Dr. Sacks describes neurological disorders that have a certain kind of loss in their neurological functions. An example of a loss would be visual agnosia which in the case of Dr.
P, it took away his ability to distinguish faces. Although Dr. P was unable to distinguish faces, he still found a way to continue his everyday life with minimal interruption by using the help of music to guide him in his life. Neuroscience is presented in Dr. Because Dr. If any of these elements are missing in the human brain, people become computer like, just as Dr. When people suffer from visual agnosia, just as Dr. P, their life becomes entirely abstract and computational. Sacks claim regarding that such disorder makes patients computer-like is accurate and valid because after making that claim, he follows up with the reader by showing another brief case of visual agnosia which allows the readers to compare the two patients and understand how complex visual agnosia is.
The second part of the book is excesses, where Dr. Neuroscience is presented in the case of Witty Ticcy Ray in several different ways. For starters, Dr. Such areas affected are the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system and amygdala which is where all the determinants for personality are located at. Haldol helped control his ticks and helped him assimilate into everyday life. Haldol works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain such as neurotransmitters. The only thing I would have liked to see from Dr. Sacks argument about Haldol, would have been to have been provided with an elaborate explanation in the ways in which Haldol helps the neurotransmitters restore chemical balances in the brain. The third part of the book is transports, where Dr.
Sacks describes neurological disorders of patients that suffer from altered perceptions which allows them to transport back to a moment in their past by reminiscing without notice. An example of transports which in the case of Mrs. In the case of Mrs. Neuroscience is presented in the case of Mrs. For starters, it shows the impact of a stroke in the brain and because of the location of the stroke occurred in the right temporal lobe, it allowed for temporal lobe seizures to occur which was the reasoning behind hearing music and transporting to earlier memories.
When Mrs. Sacks also followed up his claim by providing evidence of a test he ran on Mrs. Which further proved his claim regarding the temporal lobe seizures and their impact on the human brain. The fourth part of the book is simple, where Dr. Sacks brings out their personal strengths in each of their case and shows how these patients are able to thrive despite their neurological limitations. Neuroscience is presented in this final section by Dr. Sacks providing different case studies of patients who all live a simple and innocent lives due to their mental retardation. Sacks did well presenting different patients which helped me understand the different ways that neuroscience works in the world of simple.
The argument that Dr. Sacks makes regarding the different skills of many different individuals with mental retardation and what they can achieve despite their limitations is backed up correctly and well explained by providing different examples of all the different patients. Altogether, Dr. Sacks collection of various different clinical tales makes for an interesting yet informative neuroscience read. Sacks effectively examines the personal side of neurosis by making his book an easy read by incorporating empathy with clinical jargon. Dividing the book into four separate parts allows for the reader to get an understanding of how different neurological diseases come in all shapes and sizes. Sacks effectively explains the concepts of losses in neuroscience, the concept of excesses, the concept of transports and the world of simple.
All the different patients that were included in the different sections made it easier to understand the different neurological diseases being explained because it allowed the reader to see different examples of how neuroscience plays a giant role in our everyday lives. Sacks does not need me to review him. He has been lauded and given accolades by much higher and widely-regarded authorities than myself. It would, however, do the medical profession a world of good to re-read Dr. Sacks, who was permitted to practice a medicine long past, and recognize what miracles can occur for patients and, indeed, for our doctors' quality of life when they are allowed to practice a medicine unfettered by the artificial, finance-driven managed care nightmare we have been subjected to.
Sacks should be required reading for the entire medical profession and it's enslaving masters: hospital administration, health systems CEOs and employees. Our doctors are suffering because they aren't given the immeasurably valuable resource of time. They are working in a framework that has all but extinguished our doctors' ability to explore the toll illness takes on the patient's life and soul. The patients themselves recognize this all too keenly and are vilifying and abandoning and medicine for any snake oil salesman who will tenderly touch and listen to them. We must turn this disaster back. See all reviews. Top reviews from other countries.
I have been trying to understand why I find this much-celebrated book vaguely unsatisfying. In view of its extraordinary subject matter, it should be a riveting read, yet I find it rather dull. I wonder what group of people, Sacks had in mind as potential readers. What we have is a seemingly random series of accounts of patients, who had failed with other medical professionals, but who succeeded insofar as it was possible with him. Some are really extraordinary, such as the identical twins suffering from autism, who have an astonishing ability to see numbers, often of numerous digits, provided that they are prime numbers. There seems to be little doubt that Sacks drew out special abilities in many different fields that others had overlooked owing to pigeon-holing the subjects, often in the light of their tested IQs.
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