🔥🔥🔥 Cultural Identity: Religion, Skills, And Food

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Cultural Identity: Religion, Skills, And Food

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Evans-Pritchard , and Clifford Geertz. Michael Stausberg gives an overview of contemporary theories of religion, including cognitive and biological approaches. Sociological and anthropological theories of religion generally attempt to explain the origin and function of religion. The origin of religion is uncertain. There are a number of theories regarding the subsequent origins of religious practices. According to anthropologists John Monaghan and Peter Just, "Many of the great world religions appear to have begun as revitalization movements of some sort, as the vision of a charismatic prophet fires the imaginations of people seeking a more comprehensive answer to their problems than they feel is provided by everyday beliefs.

Charismatic individuals have emerged at many times and places in the world. It seems that the key to long-term success—and many movements come and go with little long-term effect—has relatively little to do with the prophets, who appear with surprising regularity, but more to do with the development of a group of supporters who are able to institutionalize the movement. The development of religion has taken different forms in different cultures. Some religions place an emphasis on belief, while others emphasize practice. Some religions focus on the subjective experience of the religious individual, while others consider the activities of the religious community to be most important.

Some religions claim to be universal, believing their laws and cosmology to be binding for everyone, while others are intended to be practiced only by a closely defined or localized group. In many places, religion has been associated with public institutions such as education , hospitals , the family , government , and political hierarchies. Anthropologists John Monoghan and Peter Just state that, "it seems apparent that one thing religion or belief helps us do is deal with problems of human life that are significant, persistent, and intolerable.

One important way in which religious beliefs accomplish this is by providing a set of ideas about how and why the world is put together that allows people to accommodate anxieties and deal with misfortune. While religion is difficult to define, one standard model of religion, used in religious studies courses, was proposed by Clifford Geertz , who simply called it a "cultural system". One modern academic theory of religion, social constructionism , says that religion is a modern concept that suggests all spiritual practice and worship follows a model similar to the Abrahamic religions as an orientation system that helps to interpret reality and define human beings.

The social constructionists argue that religion is a modern concept that developed from Christianity and was then applied inappropriately to non-Western cultures. Cognitive science of religion is the study of religious thought and behavior from the perspective of the cognitive and evolutionary sciences. Scholars in this field seek to explain how human minds acquire, generate, and transmit religious thoughts, practices, and schemas by means of ordinary cognitive capacities. While this number varies across cultures, this had led to theories about a number of influential religious phenomenon and possible relation to psychotic disorders.

A number of prophetic experiences are consistent with psychotic symptoms, although retrospective diagnoses are practically impossible. Religious content is also common in temporal lobe epilepsy , and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the world's religions. In general, the comparative study of religion yields a deeper understanding of the fundamental philosophical concerns of religion such as ethics , metaphysics , and the nature and form of salvation. Studying such material is meant to give one a richer and more sophisticated understanding of human beliefs and practices regarding the sacred , numinous , spiritual and divine.

In the field of comparative religion, a common geographical classification [] of the main world religions includes Middle Eastern religions including Zoroastrianism and Iranian religions , Indian religions , East Asian religions , African religions, American religions, Oceanic religions, and classical Hellenistic religions. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the academic practice of comparative religion divided religious belief into philosophically defined categories called world religions.

Some academics studying the subject have divided religions into three broad categories:. Some recent scholarship has argued that not all types of religion are necessarily separated by mutually exclusive philosophies, and furthermore that the utility of ascribing a practice to a certain philosophy, or even calling a given practice religious, rather than cultural, political, or social in nature, is limited. Some scholars classify religions as either universal religions that seek worldwide acceptance and actively look for new converts, such as Christianity, Islam, Buddhism and Jainism, while ethnic religions are identified with a particular ethnic group and do not seek converts.

The five largest religious groups by world population, estimated to account for 5. Unaffiliated populations are projected to drop, even when taking disaffiliation rates into account, due to differences in birth rates. Abrahamic religions are monotheistic religions which believe they descend from Abraham. Judaism is the oldest Abrahamic religion, originating in the people of ancient Israel and Judea. It is supplemented by oral tradition, set down in written form in later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud. Judaism includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization.

Within Judaism there are a variety of movements, most of which emerged from Rabbinic Judaism , which holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah ; historically, this assertion was challenged by various groups. Today there are about 13 million Jews, about 40 per cent living in Israel and 40 per cent in the United States. Christianity is based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth 1st century as presented in the New Testament. Most Christians can describe their faith with the Nicene Creed. As the religion of Byzantine Empire in the first millennium and of Western Europe during the time of colonization, Christianity has been propagated throughout the world via missionary work.

Islam is a monotheistic [] religion based on the Quran , [] one of the holy books considered by Muslims to be revealed by God , and on the teachings hadith of the Islamic prophet Muhammad , a major political and religious figure of the 7th century CE. Islam is based on the unity of all religious philosophies and accepts all of the Abrahamic prophets of Judaism, Christianity and other Abrahamic religions before Muhammad. Wahhabism is the dominant Muslim schools of thought in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Whilst Judaism, Christianity and Islam are commonly seen as the only three Abrahamic faiths, there are smaller and newer traditions which lay claim to the designation as well.

Even smaller regional Abrahamic groups also exist, including Samaritanism primarily in Israel and the West Bank , the Rastafari movement primarily in Jamaica , and Druze primarily in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. The Druze faith originally developed out of Isma'ilism , and it has sometimes been considered an Islamic school by some Islamic authorities, but Druze themselves do not identify as Muslims. They include:. Indian religions are practiced or were founded in the Indian subcontinent.

They are sometimes classified as the dharmic religions , as they all feature dharma , the specific law of reality and duties expected according to the religion. Indigenous religions or folk religions refers to a broad category of traditional religions that can be characterised by shamanism , animism and ancestor worship , where traditional means "indigenous, that which is aboriginal or foundational, handed down from generation to generation…". Folk religions are often omitted as a category in surveys even in countries where they are widely practiced, e. African traditional religion encompasses the traditional religious beliefs of people in Africa.

Southern African traditions include Akamba mythology , Masai mythology , Malagasy mythology , San religion , Lozi mythology , Tumbuka mythology , and Zulu mythology. Bantu mythology is found throughout central, southeast, and southern Africa. In north Africa, these traditions include Berber and ancient Egyptian. Iranian religions are ancient religions whose roots predate the Islamization of Greater Iran. Nowadays these religions are practiced only by minorities.

Zoroastrianism is based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster in the 6th century BCE. Zoroastrians worship the creator Ahura Mazda. In Zoroastrianism, good and evil have distinct sources, with evil trying to destroy the creation of Mazda, and good trying to sustain it. Mandaeism is a monotheistic religion with a strongly dualistic worldview. Mandaeans are sometime labeled as the Last Gnostics.

Kurdish religions include the traditional beliefs of the Yazidi , [] [] Alevi , and Ahl-e Haqq. The study of law and religion is a relatively new field, with several thousand scholars involved in law schools, and academic departments including political science, religion, and history since Exponents look at canon law, natural law, and state law, often in a comparative perspective. Studies have focused on secularization. Science acknowledges reason , empiricism , and evidence ; and religions include revelation , faith and sacredness whilst also acknowledging philosophical and metaphysical explanations with regard to the study of the universe. Both science and religion are not monolithic, timeless, or static because both are complex social and cultural endeavors that have changed through time across languages and cultures.

The concepts of science and religion are a recent invention: the term religion emerged in the 17th century in the midst of colonization and globalization and the Protestant Reformation. In general the scientific method gains knowledge by testing hypotheses to develop theories through elucidation of facts or evaluation by experiments and thus only answers cosmological questions about the universe that can be observed and measured. It develops theories of the world which best fit physically observed evidence. All scientific knowledge is subject to later refinement, or even rejection, in the face of additional evidence. Scientific theories that have an overwhelming preponderance of favorable evidence are often treated as de facto verities in general parlance, such as the theories of general relativity and natural selection to explain respectively the mechanisms of gravity and evolution.

Religion does not have a method per se partly because religions emerge through time from diverse cultures and it is an attempt to find meaning in the world, and to explain humanity's place in it and relationship to it and to any posited entities. In terms of Christian theology and ultimate truths, people rely on reason, experience, scripture, and tradition to test and gauge what they experience and what they should believe. Furthermore, religious models, understanding, and metaphors are also revisable, as are scientific models. Regarding religion and science, Albert Einstein states : "For science can only ascertain what is, but not what should be, and outside of its domain value judgments of all kinds remain necessary.

Though religion may be that which determine the goals, it has, nevertheless, learned from science, in the broadest sense, what means will contribute to the attainment of the goals it has set up. Many religions have value frameworks regarding personal behavior meant to guide adherents in determining between right and wrong. Religion and morality are not synonymous. While it is "an almost automatic assumption. The study of religion and morality can be contentious due to ethnocentric views on morality, failure to distinguish between in group and out group altruism, and inconsistent definitions of religiosity. Religion has had a significant impact on the political system in many countries.

However, religion also affects political decisions in many western countries. For instance, same-sex marriage and abortion were illegal in many European countries until recently, following Christian usually Catholic doctrine. Several European leaders are atheists e. In Asia, the role of religion differs widely between countries. For instance, India is still one of the most religious countries and religion still has a strong impact on politics, given that Hindu nationalists have been targeting minorities like the Muslims and the Christians, who historically [ when?

Secularization is the transformation of the politics of a society from close identification with a particular religion's values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions. The purpose of this is frequently modernization or protection of the populations religious diversity. One study has found there is a negative correlation between self-defined religiosity and the wealth of nations.

Sociologist and political economist Max Weber has argued that Protestant Christian countries are wealthier because of their Protestant work ethic. According to the same study it was found that adherents under the classification Irreligion or other religions hold about Mayo Clinic researchers examined the association between religious involvement and spirituality, and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life, and other health outcomes. The authors of a subsequent study concluded that the influence of religion on health is largely beneficial, based on a review of related literature. Jones, several studies have discovered "positive correlations between religious belief and practice and mental and physical health and longevity.

Critics like Hector Avalos [] Regina Schwartz , [] Christopher Hitchens and Richard Dawkins have argued that religions are inherently violent and harmful to society by using violence to promote their goals, in ways that are endorsed and exploited by their leaders. Anthropologist Jack David Eller asserts that religion is not inherently violent, arguing "religion and violence are clearly compatible, but they are not identical. Done by some but not all religions, animal sacrifice is the ritual killing and offering of an animal to appease or maintain favour with a deity. It has been banned in India. Greek and Roman pagans, who saw their relations with the gods in political and social terms, scorned the man who constantly trembled with fear at the thought of the gods deisidaimonia , as a slave might fear a cruel and capricious master.

The Romans called such fear of the gods superstitio. Superstition has been described as the non-rational establishment of cause and effect. Some religions may include superstitions or make use of magical thinking. Adherents of one religion sometimes think of other religions as superstition. The Roman Catholic Church considers superstition to be sinful in the sense that it denotes a lack of trust in the divine providence of God and, as such, is a violation of the first of the Ten Commandments.

The Catechism of the Catholic Church states that superstition "in some sense represents a perverse excess of religion" para. It can even affect the worship we offer the true God, e. To attribute the efficacy of prayers or of sacramental signs to their mere external performance, apart from the interior dispositions that they demand is to fall into superstition. Matthew —22" para. The terms atheist lack of belief in any gods and agnostic belief in the unknowability of the existence of gods , though specifically contrary to theistic e. Christian, Jewish, and Muslim religious teachings, do not by definition mean the opposite of religious. There are religions including Buddhism, Taoism, and Hinduism , in fact, that classify some of their followers as agnostic, atheistic, or nontheistic.

The true opposite of religious is the word irreligious. Irreligion describes an absence of any religion; antireligion describes an active opposition or aversion toward religions in general. Because religion continues to be recognized in Western thought as a universal impulse, [] many religious practitioners [ who? The first major dialogue was the Parliament of the World's Religions at the Chicago World's Fair , which affirmed universal values and recognition of the diversity of practices among different cultures.

Culture and religion have usually been seen as closely related. Religion as ultimate concern is the meaning-giving substance of culture, and culture is the totality of forms in which the basic concern of religion expresses itself. In abbreviation: religion is the substance of culture, culture is the form of religion. Such a consideration definitely prevents the establishment of a dualism of religion and culture. Every religious act, not only in organized religion, but also in the most intimate movement of the soul, is culturally formed. Ernst Troeltsch , similarly, looked at culture as the soil of religion and thought that, therefore, transplanting a religion from its original culture to a foreign culture would actually kill it in the same manner that transplanting a plant from its natural soil to an alien soil would kill it.

For instance, language with its grammar is a cultural element while sacralization of language in which a particular religious scripture is written is more often a religious practice. The same applies to music and the arts. Criticism of religion is criticism of the ideas, the truth, or the practice of religion, including its political and social implications. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Social-cultural system.

This article is about a cultural system of behaviors, practices and ethics. For other uses, see Religion disambiguation. For the term describing a type of monk or nun, see Religious Western Christianity. Not to be confused with Religious denomination. History Timeline. Christian Catholic Mysticism Sufism. Buddhist modernism New religious movement Secular spirituality " Spiritual but not religious " Syncretism.

Spiritual experience. Mystical experience Religious experience Spiritual practice. Spiritual development. Ego death Individuation Spiritual development Self-actualization Spiritual activism. Other non-Western. Animism Shamanism Totemism. Humanistic psychology Mindfulness Positive psychology Self-help Self-realization True self and false self. Mystical psychosis Cognitive science of religion Neuroscience of religion Geschwind syndrome Evolutionary psychology of religion. North America. South America. See also: Religio and History of Religion. Main article: Definition of religion. Main article: Religious beliefs. Main article: Mythology. Main articles: Religious behaviour and Cult religious practice. Main articles: Religious studies and Classifications of religious movements.

Main article: Theories of religion. Main article: History of religion. Main article: Social constructionism. Main article: Cognitive science of religion. Main article: Comparative religion. Main articles: Major religious groups and List of religious populations. Main article: List of religions and spiritual traditions. Main article: East Asian religions. Main article: Traditional African religion. Further information: African diasporic religions. Main article: New religious movement. See also: List of new religious movements. Main article: Law and religion. Main articles: Faith and rationality , Relationship between religion and science , and Epistemology.

Main article: Morality and religion. Main articles: Secularism and Secularization. Main article: Economics of religion. Further information: Religion and business and Wealth and religion. Main article: Impacts of religion on health. Main article: Religious violence. See also: Islam and violence , Christianity and violence , and Judaism and violence. Further information: Superstition , Magical thinking , and Magic and religion. See also: Criticism of atheism.

Main article: Interfaith dialogue. Main article: Criticism of religion. Religion portal. Cosmogony Index of religion-related articles Life stance List of foods with religious symbolism List of religion-related awards List of religious texts Nontheistic religions Outline of religion Parody religions Ethics in religion Philosophy of religion Priest Religion and happiness Religion and peacebuilding Religions by country Religious conversion Religious discrimination Social conditioning Socialization Temple Theocracy Theology of religions Timeline of religion Why is there something rather than nothing?

The State Museum of the History of Religion. For a discussion on the topic, see: "Establishing the boundaries" in Gavin Flood , pp. Retrieved 16 December Wiley -Blackwell. ISBN Yale University Press. Harper Perennial; p. Globalization and Culture, Vol. London: Sage Publications. History in Africa. Retrieved 18 December The Global Religious Landscape.

Arena Publications. Online Etymology Dictionary. Thomas Allen, The Waning of the Middle Ages. Penguin Books. Latin Word Study Tool. Tufts University. The Territories of Science and Religion. University of Chicago Press. Science and Religion". Wrestling with Nature: From Omens to Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Fordham University Press. Translated by McDevitte, W. Forgotten Books. Sic terror oblatus a ducibus, crudelitas in supplicio, nova religio iurisiurandi spem praesentis deditionis sustulit mentesque militum convertit et rem ad pristinam belli rationem redegit. Latin : maximum est elephans proximumque humanis sensibus, quippe intellectus illis sermonis patrii et imperiorum obedientia, officiorum quae didicere memoria, amoris et gloriae voluptas, immo vero, quae etiam in homine rara, probitas, prudentia, aequitas, religio quoque siderum solisque ac lunae veneratio.

It understands the language of its country, it obeys commands, and it remembers all the duties which it has been taught. It is sensible alike of the pleasures of love and glory, and, to a degree that is rare among men even, possesses notions of honesty, prudence, and equity; it has a religious respect also for the stars, and a veneration for the sun and the moon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Baltimore, Md. Discourse on Civility and Barbarity. Oxford University Press. The Meaning and End of Religion. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. Although the Greeks, Romans, Mesopotamians, and many other peoples have long histories, the stories of their respective religions are of recent pedigree.

The formation of ancient religions as objects of study coincided with the formation of religion itself as a concept of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. That there exist in the world such entities as 'the religions' is an uncontroversial claim However, it was not always so. The concepts 'religion' and 'the religions', as we presently understand them, emerged quite late in Western thought, during the Enlightenment. Between them, these two notions provided a new framework for classifying particular aspects of human life. Many languages do not even have a word equivalent to our word 'religion'; nor is such a word found in either the Bible or the Qur'an.

Race, Nation, or Religion? Philadelphia: Dropsie College Press, Ethics for Anthropological Research and Practice. Waveland Press. Jewish ideologies of Peace and Peacemaking". In Omar, Irfan; Duffey, Michael eds. Peacemaking and the Challenge of Violence in World Religions. Judaism : The Genealogy of a Modern Notion. Rutgers University Press. Social Sci LibreTexts. Retrieved 10 January Translated by Jacqueline I. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies : Archived from the original PDF on 23 March Retrieved 28 May Buddhism and the State in Sixteenth-Century Japan. Princeton, N. The first recorded use of "Boudhism" was , followed by "Hindooism" , "Taouism" , and "Confucianism" see figure 6.

By the middle of the nineteenth century these terms had secured their place in the English lexicon, and the putative objects to which they referred became permanent features of our understanding of the world. The Invention of Religion in Japan. The early nineteenth century saw the emergence of much of this terminology, including the formation of the terms Boudhism , Hindooism , Taouism , Zoroastri-anism , and Confucianism This construction of "religions" was not merely the production of European translation terms, but the reification of systems of thought in a way strikingly divorced from their original cultural milieu.

The original discovery of religions in different cultures was rooted in the assumption that each people had its own divine "revelation," or at least its own parallel to Christianity. In the same period, however, European and American explorers often suggested that specific African or Native American tribes lacked religion altogether. Instead these groups were reputed to have only superstitions and as such they were seen as less than human. The phrase "World Religions" came into use when the first Parliament of the World's Religions was held in Chicago in Representation at the Parliament was not comprehensive.

Naturally, Christians dominated the meeting, and Jews were represented. Muslims were represented by a single American Muslim. The enormously diverse traditions of India were represented by a single teacher, while three teachers represented the arguably more homogenous strains of Buddhist thought. The indigenous religions of the Americas and Africa were not represented. They are sometimes called the "Big Seven" in Religious Studies textbooks, and many generalizations about religion have been derived from them. Montana Law Review. In their traditional languages, Native Americans have no word for religion.

This absence is very revealing. Before the British colonized India, for example, the people there had no concept "religion" and no concept "Hinduism. Until the introduction of that term, Indians identified themselves by any number of criteria—family, trade or profession, or social level, and perhaps the scriptures they followed or the particular deity or deities upon whose care they relied in various contexts or to whom they were devoted. But these diverse identities were united, each an integral part of life; no part existed in a separate sphere identified as "religious. It was formed by adding the English suffix -ism, of Greek origin, to the word Hindu , of Persian origin; it was about the same time that the word Hindu , without the suffix -ism, came to be used mainly as a religious term.

The name Hindu was first a geographical name, not a religious one, and it originated in the languages of Iran, not of India. They referred to the non-Muslim majority, together with their culture, as 'Hindu'. Since the people called Hindu differed from Muslims most notably in religion, the word came to have religious implications, and to denote a group of people who were identifiable by their Hindu religion.

However, it is a religious term that the word Hindu is now used in English, and Hinduism is the name of a religion, although, as we have seen, we should beware of any false impression of uniformity that this might give us. Secularity around the World". It was only in response to Western cultural contact in the late nineteenth century that a Japanese word for religion shukyo came into use. It tends to be associated with foreign, founded, or formally organized traditions, particularly Christianity and other monotheisms, but also Buddhism and new religious sects.

Introduction to the science of religion. Literatur Religionsgeschichte , S. Biologische Grundlagen der Religion. In: EKL Bd. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p. CiteSeerX ISSN Retrieved 20 July New York: Harper and Row. In Eliade, Mircea ed. The Encyclopedia of Religion 2nd ed. MacMillan Reference US. Afterwards, you will see how the rest of the community feels about their own involvement too. Skip to content APLU prohibits discrimination against any individual on the basis of race, religion, color, sex, age, national origin or ancestry, marital status, parental status, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, disability, or status as a veteran.

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