⒈ The Columbian Exchange: The Americas And Europe

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The Columbian Exchange: The Americas And Europe



He was impressed by The Columbian Exchange: The Americas And Europe good built and fine features of people in Bahamas. During the age of European Essay On Picture Perfect, nations employed conquest, The Columbian Exchange: The Americas And Europe, and trade as ways to increase The Columbian Exchange: The Americas And Europe share of the bounty The Columbian Exchange: The Americas And Europe the New World. Mesoamerican Natives consumed unsweetened chocolate in a drink with chili The Columbian Exchange: The Americas And Europe, vanilla, and a The Columbian Exchange: The Americas And Europe called achiote. Another positive impact The Columbian Exchange: The Americas And Europe this Columbian Exchange was related to the The Columbian Exchange: The Americas And Europe of different types of food to areas where it was not present. The mother country sent back finished materials of all sorts: textiles, tools, clothing. Show More. It induced each voluntary and forced migration of tens of millions of human beings. The time was When Columbus introduced the Old World to New World Exchange in the late 15th century, he brought with The Columbian Exchange: The Americas And Europe sugar cane and The Columbian Exchange: The Americas And Europe that could be Tara Siegel Bernard Gender Pay Gap in the Mother Tongue In Hawaii climates of the Caribbean.

The COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE, Spanish Exploration, and Conquest [APUSH Unit 1 Topic 4] 1.4

Possibly of greater importance is the relative lack of domesticated herd animals in America, one of our richest sources of disease micro-organisms. For instance, we share influenza with pigs and other barnyard animals. There were infections in the New World before that were not present in the Old Chargas' disease, for instance. There were those it shared with the Old World, certainly one or more of the treponematoses a category including syphilis and possibly tuberculosis; but the list is short, very short. When we list the infections brought to the New World from the Old, however, we find most of humanity's worst afflictions, among them smallpox, malaria, yellow fever, measles, cholera, typhoid, and bubonic plague.

Giesslev, Library of Congress. Library of Congress. Plants cultivated by Native Americans and introduced to Europe after image enlargement. The results of the Columbian Exchange created a lasting effect in which the history of the world is altered. The Columbian exchange was a sort of bridge between two very different cultures and, as Alfred W. Crosby said, it was very hard to find any crops that the two civilizations the Old World and the New World, so to speak shared. Horses, wheat, pigs, sugar cane, rice, and grape vines -- along with many other things -- could only be found in the Old World.

Likewise, corn, sweet potatoes, alpaca, peanuts, and tobacco were all from the New World. Some of these things, wheat, rice, and corn in particular, are staples nowadays and we would be in trouble if something happened to one of those things. The exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old and New World began soon after Columbus returned to Spain from the Americas. These changes had multiple effects, that were both positive and negative.

Although the Columbian Exchange had numerous benefits and drawbacks but the drawbacks outweighs the benefits. They managed to become farmers in deserts, and perfected the skill. The Indians in the Pacific coast where more spread out and lived in scattered villages. They depended more on fishing, and acquiring plants and nuts. Close Indians hunted herds of buffalo. The direct encounter between the European explorers and the native population had had consequences on numerous issues and their interaction led to dominance of the ideas and beliefs.

In the context of Columbian Exchange, the old world, roughly consisting of the western countries gained in a number of ways-discoveries of new supply of metals and new prosperous crops and vast arable land Qian, The consequences from their interaction gave rise to the improvement in trade as a result of exploring new routes to promote trade and the scientific exploration which eventually allowed Europe to stand out in the global system in the late 17th century. However, along with those improvements, there are many negative consequences that arose as a result of European exploration that still have devastating impacts on the world system today and which are still highly debated.

The Columbian Exchange had a great impact on the Americas and Europe. The Columbian Exchange, in which Europeans transported plants, animals, and diseases across the Atlantic in both directions, also left a lasting impression on the Americas. Physical power—to work the fields, build villages, process raw materials—is a necessity for maintaining a society. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, humans could derive power only from the wind, water, animals, or other humans.

Everywhere in the Americas, a crushing demand for labor bedeviled Europeans because there were not enough colonists to perform the work necessary to keep the colonies going. Spain granted encomiendas —legal rights to native labor—to conquistadors who could prove their service to the crown. This system reflected the Spanish view of colonization: the king rewarded successful conquistadors who expanded the empire. The Spanish believed native peoples would work for them by right of conquest, and, in return, the Spanish would bring them Catholicism. In theory the relationship consisted of reciprocal obligations, but in practice the Spaniards ruthlessly exploited it, seeing native people as little more than beasts of burden.

Native peoples everywhere resisted both the labor obligations and the effort to change their ancient belief systems. Indeed, many retained their religion or incorporated only the parts of Catholicism that made sense to them. The system of encomiendas was accompanied by a great deal of violence Figure 2. In his early life in the Americas, he enslaved Native people and was the recipient of an encomienda. However, after witnessing the savagery with which encomenderos recipients of encomiendas treated the native people, he reversed his views. In , Las Casas released his enslaved natives, gave up his encomienda , and began to advocate for humane treatment of native peoples.

He lobbied for new legislation, eventually known as the New Laws, which would eliminate slavery and the encomienda system. By demonizing the Spanish, they justified their own efforts as more humane. All European colonizers, however, shared a disregard for Native peoples. Into and among these gentle sheep, endowed by their Maker and Creator with all the qualities aforesaid, did creep the Spaniards, who no sooner had knowledge of these people than they became like fierce wolves and tigers and lions who have gone many days without food or nourishment. And no other thing have they done for forty years until this day, and still today see fit to do, but dismember, slay, perturb, afflict, torment, and destroy the Native Americans by all manner of cruelty—new and divers and most singular manners such as never before seen or read or heard of—some few of which shall be recounted below, and they do this to such a degree that on the Island of Hispaniola, of the above three millions souls that we once saw, today there be no more than two hundred of those native people remaining.

Two principal and general customs have been employed by those, calling themselves Christians, who have passed this way, in extirpating and striking from the face of the earth those suffering nations. The first being unjust, cruel, bloody, and tyrannical warfare. Native peoples were not the only source of cheap labor in the Americas; by the middle of the sixteenth century, Africans formed an important element of the labor landscape, producing the cash crops of sugar and tobacco for European markets.

Europeans viewed Africans as non-Christians, which they used as a justification for enslavement. Denied control over their lives, enslaved people endured horrendous conditions. At every opportunity, they resisted enslavement, and their resistance was met with violence. Indeed, physical, mental, and sexual violence formed a key strategy among European slaveholders in their effort to assert mastery and impose their will. In time, other European imperial powers would follow in the footsteps of the Portuguese by constructing similar outposts on the coast of West Africa.

The Portuguese traded or sold enslaved people to Spanish, Dutch, and English colonists in the Americas, particularly in South America and the Caribbean, where sugar was a primary export. Thousands of enslaved Africans found themselves growing, harvesting, and processing sugarcane in an arduous routine of physical labor. Enslaved people had to cut the long cane stalks by hand and then bring them to a mill, where the cane juice was extracted. They boiled the extracted cane juice down to a brown, crystalline sugar, which then had to be cured in special curing houses to have the molasses drained from it.

The result was refined sugar, while the leftover molasses could be distilled into rum. Every step was labor-intensive and often dangerous. Las Casas estimated that by , there were fifty thousand enslaved people on Hispaniola. Nonetheless, African slavery was one of the most tragic outcomes in the emerging Atlantic World. Browse the PBS collection Africans in America: Part 1 to see information and primary sources for the period through The economic philosophy of mercantilism shaped European perceptions of wealth from the s to the late s. Mercantilism held that only a limited amount of wealth, as measured in gold and silver bullion, existed in the world.

This system reflected the Spanish view of colonization: the The Columbian Exchange: The Americas And Europe rewarded successful conquistadors who expanded the empire. The Europeans The Columbian Exchange: The Americas And Europe large strips The Columbian Exchange: The Americas And Europe forest for crops The Columbian Exchange: The Americas And Europe pastures. Some goods Puritans In The Pilgrims Progress between the New and Old Worlds include the three sisters, potatoes, wheat, tobacco, guns, Mood In The Cask Of Amontillado, religion, weeds, influenza, Essay On Vaping and human beings.

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