⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ How Did The People Treat The Commoners Before The French Revolution

Wednesday, July 21, 2021 12:23:24 AM

How Did The People Treat The Commoners Before The French Revolution

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The French Revolution In A Nutshell

The Skaven Lords of Decay are a group of this. The best example is the Arabyan Crusades. The Lords of Decay sent Skaven to support Sultan Jaffar, spying on his enemies and assassinating them in exchange for the warpstone deposits across his land that's toxic to humans, but the backbone of Skaven society along with backstabbing and self-interest. They eventually convince him, by lying, that Estalia is planning to invade Araby and that he should strike first, which he does. Two-hundred years of warfare follow in which Bretonnia and the Empire get involved sending thousands of Knights to fight the Arabyans.

The Skaven disappear once the tide turns against Jaffar, tens of thousands of humans are dead without one Skaven casualty, and they got all the warpstone and nobody ever found out they were involved. Stupid man-things. The Chosen One : The Everchosen are this as far as the Dark Gods of Chaos are concerned; and are almost always the greatest heroes of the Northern tribes; the sole exception being Archaon, who is neither Norse or Kurgan, but a former citizen of the Empire. The Everchosen also have an equal and opposite, who leads the realms of men against Chaos incursions. Magnus and Valten are the most recent. It's not that the Khornate wanted to turn on you, it's more to do with how he already curb-stomped everyone else and needs to kill some more. Or that you were between him and someone he wanted to kill.

Outdoing even the Skaven are the Hobgoblins, larger and meaner versions of the Goblins who live on the Eastern Steppes. They are so prone to this that they have evolved a hard bony plate on their backs where a stab is most likely. In fact, they are considered so untrustworthy that even the cowardly, mean, spiteful goblins think that they backstab too much.

Clever Crows : Tzeentch, the Chaos God of knowledge, magic, and intricate scheming, is sometimes referred to as the Raven God. However, Chaos Champions are shown as taking off their armour with little incident in the background, and one of Archaon's trials hinged upon him being able to change his gear. Malekith's armor too, which he cannot survive without and ordered to be welded to his body. Cold Iron : Cold iron, defined as iron worked without the use of fire, can create weapons capable of harming spirits and other ethereal creatures. Colour-Coded Emotions : The four Chaos gods are the embodiments of a specific emotion felt by sentient creatures. This is partially explained by having part of their army not having a need for food, but the majority still needs to eat.

There are always prisoners Bretonnia, despite being in a state of crushing poverty is still able to maintain a considerable military force. To give you an idea on the level of poverty; on a good day a whole Bretonnian village could trade their entire collected wealth for half of the smallest unit of currency in the Empire. Fluff would later justify this by noting that, while Bretonnian peasants are in perpetual poverty, they're that way because the landed nobility that owns them is filthy rich. Bretonnian nobles pay for the upkeep of temporary conscript levies from the peasantry and by way of the feudal system fund the nation's famed knights.

Bretonnia also benefits from an alliance with the elves of Athel Loren and the patronage of the Goddess of Chivalry. Conlang : Lots of languages in the Warhammer universe have their own distinct alphabets and scripts especially Reikspiel, Kislevarin, and Khalizd. Conscription : All Bretonnian infantry, with the notable exception of Grail Pilgrims, is conscripted en masse from the peasant population. Skaven Clanrats are conscripts. Skavenslaves are Battle Thralls. Northern peasants of the Empire are constantly conscripted to counteract the consistent threat of Norse warbands attacking those regions.

Continuity Nod : The Warhammer world does not canonically take place in the same universe as Warhammer 40, anymore , but it does make a few nods to the sci-fi mythos, such as the Old Ones' starships and warp gates and Greenskin spores coming down from space, and the Ogres' Great Maw is reminiscent of Tyranid biotech. It's easy to believe that Sigmar, founder of the Empire, is one of the two missing Primarchs. In fact, in the earliest editions, it was all but stated that the Warhammer world is part of the Warhammer 40, universe — or at least that the Chaos Wastes connected to the Warp. The Albion Dark Shadows campaign included a number of magical weapons. The Liber Chaotica pub had, as example of Daemon weapons, a chainsword.

The 7th Edition High Elves army book makes reference to the fact that occasionally their armies are put under the control of a less capable general, due to politics, but then comments that the Phoenix King keeps this from happening. This is a reference to the rule Intrigue at Court from the previous High Elf army book. The most recent nod to this is when Araloth travels through the Realm of Chaos when he is beckoned to leave the doomed Old World. In it he meets a figure that is heavily hinted to be Kaidor Draigo. However, given that he's explicitly traveling through a dimension where the laws of the universe are guidelines at best, this isn't hard proof that the two still share the same universe especially since the Chaos Gods and their realm can plausibly transcend notions such as "consistency".

Cool vs. Awesome : At its heart, the game is effectively a gigantic constant war between the Holy Roman Empire , demon-worshipping Vikings, a really messed-up take on Arthurian England with a huge sider order of France , giant lion-riding Athenian "good" elves, Velociraptor-riding super-sadist Spartan-esque evil elves, insane nature-loving neutral elves and their living trees, drunken revenge-obsessed dwarfs, giant spider-loving Lower-Class Lout goblins and orcs, cannibalistic anarchist beastmen, Mayincatec dinosaur men riding bigger dinosaurs, the roving hordes of the undead two varieties in fact — zombies and monsters led by classic Gothic horror vampires or skeleton legions led by Egyptian mummies and psychotic Nazi ratmen with crazy wunderwaffe powered by Green Rocks!

Corpse Land : The island holding the Sword of Khaine is covered in the bodies and battle gear of the elves who've fought over it, and bodies thousands of years old can be seen fresh. The semi-mythical mountain atop which Abhorash and those vampires who have drunk the blood of dragons the only substance capable of sustaining a Vampire forever wait to return to the land of the living is said to be surrounded by the bodies of those who have tried and failed to climb it.

More generally, Sylvania is full of the dead. Counterspell : Dispel dice are an example of this, being used solely to counter enemy spells. There are also various abilities and pieces of wargear that allow instant dispels the ubiquitous Dispel Scroll , or increase the power of your dispel attempts, either through modifying the result or granting extra dispel dice. Crapsaccharine World : Take equal amounts of Arthurian legends, J. That, and the fact that their Lady of the Lake in this case is very like some kind of fucked up Lovecraftian horror that's so ancient that not even the elves know what she really is and worse is manipulating their entire society for reasons unknown.

And those are actually one of the good guys comparatively. Crapsack World : Take the worst aspects of Medieval European society: the paranoia, the hatred, and the fanatical religious devotion, and roll them into one. You'll get The Empire. Then add legions of Daemons, Beastmen, and other assorted nasties, and you'll be rooting for the imperialist, heretic-burning Empire in no time. Creepy Good : Blue-and-Orange Morality notwithstanding, the Lizardmen are determined to prevent Chaos from overwhelming the world which is the closest thing this setting has to "good" , and they are also incredibly creepy.

The Tomb Kings may also qualify, although they're less overtly opposed to Chaos. Creepy Souvenir : Many warriors keep parts of their enemies as trophies, including Gorthor, who wears a cloak made of the skins of shamans. Crown of Horns : Orcs often wear the very large horns of various creatures, usually to show that they've killed something bigger and meaner than themselves.

Crown of Power : The Crown of Domination is a sorcerous artifact that once belonged to Nagash, the greatest necromancer of all time. The last owner was an orc warboss named Azhag da Slaughterer, and while the crown tried to whisper strategies and tactics in his mind that gave him victory, orcs are very strong-willed, and sometimes he'd be seen arguing with the crown. The Crown of Thorns is an item that lets the wearer regenerate wounds. The Circlet of Iron is an ancient arcane relic discovered by Malekith in a ruined primeval city in the far north.

It enhances the spellcasting abilities of the wearer but also appears to exert a corrupting influence over them, drawing them to the study of dark magic. It's implied that the circlet was one of the major factors contributing to Malekith's fall from grace. Curse of the Pharaoh : Subverted. Many sources describe the Tomb Kings tombs as cursed, but the "curse" that afflicts wannabe grave robbers is usually less "metaphysical malaise" and more "you just pissed off an undead immortal necromancer who will stop at nothing to get their stuff back. Some vampires view their condition as this. Cycle of Revenge : The Dwarfs will go to war over any perceived slights. And then they will go to war to avenge the deaths of everyone who died in the previous war.

And then they will go to war to avenge the deaths of those who died in that war, and so on. They can keep an endless cycle of revenge going all by themselves without any intentional participation from the other party. Dark Fantasy : One of the Trope Codifiers. Warhammer may look like your typical bright and shiny fantasy world on the surface, but it's set in a universe where magic and religion are intrinsically tied to Chaos, not to mention that fighting it will simply empower its gods and all forms of life have also been corrupted by it. Even the entire universe was destroyed in the final confrontation between Order and Chaos, only being resurrected thanks to the efforts of Sigmar. Dark Is Not Evil : This is how the less insane undead commanders try to spin it.

They're probably lying. Grey and Amethyst Wizards, who use the magics of Shadows and Death respectively , with Amethyst Wizards having some difficulty convincing fellow Imperial citizens that they aren't necromancers. The Lizardmen, despite being lizard people and feeding people to giant snakes for their Aztec-inspired religion, aren't all that bad.

They're essentially the guardians of the world and will often oppose the machinations of Chaos. Provided that they don't intrude on territory that is considered sacred to the Lizardmen, other races will be generally be left alone. The problem is that while they're not overtly hostile to other lifeforms, they don't seem to particularly care about them either. Their dedication to carrying out the enigmatic plans of the Old Ones often results in them doing things like re-arranging entire mountains because they're not in the right place. Said rearrangement resulted in a catastrophe that nearly destroyed the Dwarf race and shattered their empire into a handful of isolated kingdoms and strongholds.

Many, or at least some Vampires in the Warhammer world aren't evil at all. However, they tend not to be at the head of an army, and so don't play a prominent role outside of the novels. In the later Von Carstein trilogy, the concept is revived with the Grand Master of the Order of the White Wolf, who is bitten by Vlad von Carstein yet manages to resist the temptations of vampirism. He ends up as the eternal guardian of Vlad's immortality-granting ring. It seems to be that, whilst being turned into a vampire does not alter one's perspective, the horrific hunger and starvation an unsated vampire experience eventually corrupts most vampires. The Tomb Kings of Khemri are the mummified rulers of an empire that was slain and reanimated in an act of magical genocide.

They just want to be left alone, and are canonically considered a "Neutral" army that can ally with anyone. However, they do launch massive invasions in order to get back their stuff that had been stolen over the years. Morr may or may not be this, given that he takes care of souls in the afterlife, as opposed to eating them regardless of the host being dead or alive, like most active gods in the setting do on a routine basis. Death Seeker : Dwarf Slayers, who have suffered some extreme dishonour and now only wish to die gloriously.

According to the fluff, the Lizardmen planted the jungles as a defence to keep out invaders Athel Loren, home forest of the Wood Elves, is full of human-hating Dryads , xenophobic, cannibalistic Wood Elves and all kinds of monsters, most of which are allied with the Wood Elves. And the kicker?. The entire forest is a human-hating Genius Loci. Mousillon, a province of Bretonnia that embodies Swamps Are Evil. The human inhabitants are all inbred criminals or grave robbers, the main industries are frog and snail catching, half the houses are abandoned and all are rotted, a type of weed grows that mimics a path and falls through into the water, the previous lord was violently insane and probably not human, giant frogs roam the streets at night, zombies are rampant It makes sense that Bretonnia has mostly given up on the place.

Sylvania, the homeland of the Vampire Counts, is ruled by vampires and thus choked with wandering undead. The few humans huddle up in villages, doors bolted and hung with charms and prayers to numerous gods. The only reason they stay is that the forests surrounding it are somehow even worse. The Empire gets in on the act. The Great Woods are full of Forest Goblins, Giant Spiders and Beastmen, the northern provinces are full of ghouls, Chaos daemons and direwolves, the sewers are infested by Skaven, mutants and Chaos cultists Anywhere corrupted by Chaos is guaranteed to become this, full of mutations, demons, Warriors of Chaos and so on. Nehekara, even more so than anywhere else in the setting.

Nothing lives there except undead, because the war with Nagash poisoned the waters and reduced it to nothing but sand and dust. The continent of Naggaroth, homeland of the Dark Elves, is primarily a frigid wasteland with sparse nautral resources, a host of monstrous wildlife and is the home of of one of the most hostile civilizations on the planet. That's not even mentioning the Underworld Sea, a vast maze of waterlogged tunnels beneath Naggaroth. It's lightless, easy to get lost in, hard to travel through and infested with monsters. It sits right next door to the Empire of Man, which has Renaissance era level technology going into the early Industrial Period level with elements of Steampunk thrown in for good measure as well, including steam powered tanks!

Bretonnia manages to resist being forcibly assimilated into the Empire, most likely due to the mountain range that makes travel between the two difficult, and the magic granted by a local god, the "Lady of the Lake" making their elite upper class Immune to Bullets. However, it's a little more complicated than that, with the local baby-eating wood elves being the most favorable candidate to be both granting them this power, and keeping the nation in its Medieval Stasis , simply to shield themselves from the outside world Another possible reason that Bretonnia has maintained its independence is its great success in domesticating the flocks of pegasi that live in their mountains resulting in the rise of the Pegasus Knight. Pegasi exist in the Empire too, but mostly as very rare possessions of aristocrats, giving Bretonnia effective dominance of the air.

Deity of Human Origin : At the end of his reign, Sigmar wandered away into the mountains to the east and was never seen again. He became King in the Mountain for the people of the Empire, and it is possible he actually did ascend to divinity, and it turns out he really did. It is also heavily implied that Myrmidia and Ranald were also once mortals. The High Elves worship him as a God of War, but are also aware about how destruction can be indiscriminate, tempering their reverence. The Dark Elves, on the other hand, openly worship him as a God of Murder, a living representation of their Social Darwinism.

Deliberately Painful Clothing : Followers of Slaanesh wears these, though it's less repentance and more getting a kick from the sensations , as well as powering their god. Independent characters can also receive a weaker version requiring a roll of 4 or higher if they're within 3 inches of a unit they could legally join but haven't. Since monsters and war-machines cannot form legal units, characters riding or using either cannot benefit from this rule. Thorgrim also cannot benefit from this rule since he's sitting on a giant throne carried by his bodyguards even if he has joined a unit.

Virtually everything that lives in them is very, very bad. The outermost kilometre or two of any given forest is relatively safe, and people often hunt in them. However, venturing further in is stupid in the extreme. Athel Loren, the home of the Wood Elves, is a Genius Loci that may simply steer you out of it, or let the Wood Elves or tree spirits kill you. Anyone brave — or stupid — enough to reach the deepest reaches of it will find themselves facing creatures like the Preyton , the Jabberslythe , and the Arachnarok Spider. The Imperial Grand Theogonist then called him a Dirty Coward for using magic , so Teclis demostrated why one Can't Argue with Elves by pissing off and letting the Empire fight on alone note He knew they would win, but decided to let them do all the dying to teach them a lesson in manners.

A more literal example happened during The End Times between Settra and the newly-revived demigod Nagash. Having just crumped Settra's army and royal guard, Nagash offered the King of Khemri the position of Mortarch, one of his ten generals, among the undead legions. Settra spat in Nagash's face, resulting in the former's disintergration. Knowing that Settra could not be killed, Nagash left him as a head in the sand, positioned just so that he can see his kingdom.

Nagash then promptly went godzilla on the whole of Khemri, reducing it to ruin in a matter of hours. Settra was left in the sand, none of his former allies even daring to go near his head for fear of Nagash's wrath. Doomy Dooms of Doom : Ohsomuch. Draconic Humanoid : The Dragon Ogres are an inversion of the usual fusion, since they're an ogre torso on a dragon's lower body, and are among the most powerful and ancient of all creatures. Droit du Seigneur : Implied to exist in various forms, but there is one heartwarming subversion. Duke Laurent of Artois requires all brides in his domain to spend their wedding night in his bedchamber along with their husbands, while the Duke sleeps outside the door, so they can have the duchy's biggest and most comfortable bed in complete privacy for their wedding night.

Drop the Hammer : Warrior Priests and many dwarfs carry these. And, of course, Emperor Karl Franz carries the warhammer that the entire game is named after, Ghal Maraz, originally the warhammer of the first Emperor, Sigmar. Drunk on the Dark Side : The Skaven, especially with warpstone involved. Grey Seers are quite wary of the megalomania which is extreme even by skaven standards that comes with the power it gives. The more a character gets involved with the dark forces of Chaos, the more they tend to get addicted to those same forces. The Dung Ages : If you're poor, this is your lifestyle. Averted in earlier editions of Bretonnia: peasants who proved themselves had the chance of being upgraded to nobility.

Now they just get a fat hog and some jewels which likely won't last long anyhow. It's still possible for a Bretonnian peasant to be knighted for acts of great nobility, such as saving a Damsel in Distress. Not that it happens often — just three times so far since the founding of Bretonnia over years ago. Bretonnian laws of nobility define a noble as anyone whose ancestors on both sides are nobles for the last two generations. Anyone else is a peasant. A peasant may be knighted, but his line will die out immediately since his children will, by definition, be peasants. Easy Logistics : All factions, more or less, but the Warriors of Chaos take the cake. Somehow a frigid, mountainous wasteland crawling with literal demons and a rape-and-pillage-based economy manages to not only raise and feed huge Norscan armies, but equip them with absurd amounts of armor plate and battleaxes the size of a filing cabinet.

Eating the Enemy : One of the options for a giant's grab attack is to simply eat the target. Elective Monarchy : With only a few exceptions, most of the monarchies are elective in some way. After their first Emperor ascended to godhood, leaving no heir, it was decided that the Empire of Man would elect the their Emperors from then on. While this was nominally to choose the most capable among them to lead, this is not always the case.

Since theChurch of Sigmar which holds a total of three votes always votes for the Reikland elector, Reikland automatically has four votes sometimes five, since the Moot always votes for the son of the previous Emperor. Meanwhile, the Ar-Ulric head of the cult of Ulric always votes for the Middenland one, so the Middenland elector automatically has two; unsurprisingly, the two cults don't usually get along. Bribery and politicking are far from uncommon during an election, and the occasional military enticement isn't unheard of either. The High Elves elect their Phoenix Kings in a similar fashion, although unlike the Empire they have a series of rules, both spoken and unspoken, regarding the process, and enough hindsight to understand certain lines they never cross killing ones' rivals being the biggest one.

There is also a hereditary Everqueen, who is required by law to marry the Phoenix King though once that's done and the next Everqueen has been begotten, they can and will take other consorts. Bretonnia has a system comparable to the Empire, where the Dukes elect the King also called the Royarch from among themselves, but there is a prerequisite that the King must be a Grail Knight.

In the event that the previous King's son is already a Grail Knight, though, he will almost certainly be chosen. Granted, the final word is with the Fay Enchantress the head of the Bretonnian religion , and she is fully within her right to refuse the nominee, in which case another election has to be held. The Dwarfs are this combined with a bit of Asskicking Equals Authority. The Karaz Ankor of the Dwarfs is divided into numerous holds ruled by hereditary kings, who in turn owe allegiance to the High King. Upon the High King's death, all the noble clans gather in Karaz-a-Karak, where any of the hopefuls compete for the title mostly by performing various great deeds , after which a Council of Elders select the High King.

Elemental Embodiment : Incarnate elementals are living embodiments of one of the winds of magic, and are typically created or summoned by a wizard attuned to that wind. They embody the destructive and ferocious nature of their wind, and are often summoned as engines of war. Incarnate elementals of Ghur, the Wind of Beasts, also known as Bloody Hidesmen, Horned Men and Faceless Hunters, are towering figures of muscle and sinew with horned or antlered skulls for heads. They are living embodiments of predatory might and the fury of the wild, and are called upon to defend the wildlands or to hunt down powerful foes. Incarnate elementals of Shyish, the Wind of Death, take the form of enormous serpents with two long necks topped by draconic heads, bound together by a chain and an hourglass said to contain a king's powdered bones.

As living embodiments of entropy and death, any beings in their proximity begin to wither and die. Elemental Powers : The eight winds of magic. Kislev also has ice magic. The white wind, Hysh. The yellow wind, Chamon. The green wind, Ghyran. The blue wind , Azyr. The grey wind, Ulgu. The purple wind, Shyish. The red wind, Aqshy. The brown wind, Ghur. And lastly, the black wind, Dhar. Elves vs. Dwarves : Not so much in the present day, but the War of Vengeance.

And given the Adventure-Friendly World , this trope is possible. The Empire : Yeah, the good guys. Based on the Holy Roman Empire ; as a result, it's surprisingly democratic, with nobles known as Elector Counts voting for their emperor, again, a practice swiped from the Holy Roman Empire. The upper classes are largely corrupt, the church is an extremist military force, though the latter is justified, given the sheer evil of everywhere else.

Suprisingly, the actual monarch see below is both decent and competent. They could arguably qualify as more of The Federation. The Emperor : The Emperor is an elected official though elected by the nobility, and not the populace , the current one a guy named Karl Franz who is also the reigning prince of one of the constituents of the Empire. He's what you could call an Emperor Action. Although it's possible he had the incarnation of his own god killed to preserve his position and maintain order. But then, nobody's perfect. Emotion Eater : Chaos mainly; the lore of Slaanesh focuses on this and messing with leadership. Enemy Civil War : Many of the evil factions tend to fight among themselves. The Skaven in particular are known for this. The most infamous are the Chaos gods worshipped by the Norsca Heavy Metal Horny Vikings , the Kislevites worship the bear god Ursun, Sigmar is the god of the Empire's state religion as well as its founder, the Bretonnians worship the Lady of the Lake actually the elven goddess Lileath.

Similarly, the Skaven worship the Horned Rat, but whether he's an aspect of Nurgle or a separate divinity is blurry. Even Evil Has Standards : After the Nehekharan Empire was completely destroyed and transformed into the Land of the Dead by Nagash, the very first Necromancer, the Skaven Council of Thirteen got very uncomfortable at the prospect of being among the first victims of Nagash's upcoming plans for world domination. They made a unanimous vote in favor of assassinating Nagash which was done by freeing Alcadizaar, the last King of Nehehara, and giving him a blade made out of pure warpstone.

During the battle, the Council joined their power into protecting Alcadizaar until he finally defeated Nagash, after which they disposed of the latter's remains in warp fires and set about extracting the warpstone in Cripple Peak for the next years. This is the only known instance in history where the entire Skaven race have ever completely united against an outside threat, and where the Council of Thirteen have ever aided a non-Skaven. Just to give you an idea of how terrified the Skaven were of Nagash.

Everything's Better with Dinosaurs : The Lizardmen, and what they use as steeds. Everything Trying to Kill You : Lustria. Poisonous plants soul-eating properties optional carnivorous animals lurking around every corner, tiny tree frogs that can kill a Daemon with their poison, and to top it all off, a race of killer dinosaur-men with a ruthless streak a mile wide.

In fact, a Chameleon Skink may very well be lurking right above your head right now Honestly, this is true for everywhere , not just Lustria. Take the lands of the Empire, for example. You might get killed by a Beast Man raiding party, torn apart by Orcs, have your village and family destroyed by a Chaos incursion, or you may be killed by wildlife on any given day.

That, and your owned damned country might be trying to kill you because they have the slightest feeling that you are a follower of Chaos. And it is like this anywhere on the globe, even for the "evil" factions. The only reason they haven't all been killed is because they're just so damned good at killing as well, meaning you get stuck in an endless cycle.

See Adventure-Friendly World above. Vampirism too, especially the Strigoi bloodline. Evil vs. Evil : "Bad guy" factions are just as prone to fighting each other as they are to fighting less malevolent people. And don't think they don't fight among themselves , either. Exact Words : In the novel Nagash the Sorcerer , the eponymous sorcerer promises his bride, Neferem, that no harm will come to her son, Sukhet, from this moment forward if she drinks an elixir recently made from the now-deceased Sukhet's blood. A player who had tougher troops or better yet; undead troops, who would be immune could easily find themselves better off than their opponent after using it. Extreme Omnivore : Virtually the only things Ogres don't think make for good eating are Gnoblars — and they'll eat them too, they just don't like it as much as better fare.

Although the ears and nose are quite tasty. Coincidentally, ear and nose size are badges of status among Gnoblars. One Ogre mentioned in the Ogre Kingdoms army book was killed because it ate a loaded rifle, which went off in its stomach firing directly into its brain. There was also a whole horse skeleton found in his stomach. Extreme Speculative Stratification : Bretonnia King Arthur meets The Dung Ages is essentially divided into two types of people: nobility and peasants the other social classes of the actual Middle Ages presumably exist offscreen. The first are feudal overlords with their hands full dealing with orcs, Chaos and their neighbors encroaching, the second are illiterate, inbred Cannon Fodder whose only hope for social advancement is to join their lord's army as a bowman.

The Chaos Warriors hail from the grim northern wastes and beyond that is the Realm of Chaos, near the Warhammer world's north pole with a matching, if seldom-depicted, counterpart at the south pole. This is considered a great honor. The girls? They tend to turn up about ten years later, acting very different but well trained in using this power. The boys? Oh, they tend to not ever be seen again. The Wood Elves of Athel Loren who may be the power behind the Lady are known to flat-out abduct children. According to a Wood Elves army book, "Boy children taken from the lands around the forest, destined never to grow old, joyfully serve their Elven masters.

Fantasy Counterpart Religion : Lots of it. The Chaos Gods are like a more malevolent version of the Norse pantheon, including an Odin analogue being filled by Khorne promising a Warrior Heaven for his followers that fall in battle. The Lizardmen worship Sotek, a snake-like deity akin to the Aztecs' Quetzacoatl. It's also implied that Warhammer 's version of Islam is practiced by the nation of Araby, though other than being described as a monotheistic faith manifested by its chosen prophets, not much else is known about it. The equivalent of the Crusades happened when a daemon of Tzeentch tricked an Arabyan sultan into attacking the Empire, but little else is known about it.

Elves and Bretonnia stick to bows and arrows, while the Empire and Dwarfs use firearms and cannons. The Skaven use ratling guns and sniper rifles and flamethrowers and grenades and laser guns and poison gas and Fantasy Pantheon : The Elven and the Empire both have pantheons composed of various gods. These gods tend to be anthropomorphic personifications of various concepts Isha is the Elven goddess of life, Ulric is the Empire's god of winter, battle and wolves, Khaine is the Elven war god, etc. Then there's the four great Gods of Chaos created from the psyche of mortals: Khorne, god of rage and war; Slaanesh, god of lust and excess; Nurgle, god of disease and despair; and Tzeentch, god of schemes, magic, and ambition.

It's worth mentioning that Khorne is sort of like an evil version of Odin, minus the magic. There were a number of lesser Chaos Gods, but they were minor gods and their canonicity is questionable see below. Since Chaos uses the symbol of eight arrows arranged into a star, the devs made a group of lesser Chaos gods to round out the number to eight. They have existed on and off under dubious canonicity due to unimportance or real world legal complications.

There was Hashut, god of Chaos Dwarves; Malal, renegade Chaos god that represents Chaos's inherent instability ; Necoho, god of atheism no, really! There was also Be'lakor, whose something of a puzzle at this point, but exists and a Daemon Prince who's subordinate to each of the big four; and also the Great Horned Rat, the god of the Skaven. There's also the concept of Chaos Undivided, whose tenants worship the main four Chaos gods as a pantheon or as aspects of a higher deity. Chaos is usually at its most unstoppable when the gods set aside old rivalries and focus their power and followers on a single goal.

The ancestor gods of the Dwarfs are another pantheon and so is the old pantheon of ancient Nehekhara. Ind is mentioned and referred to as the land of a thousand gods so one would expect them to have quite the pantheon. Bretonnia is said to have the commoners and the occasional noble worship some Empire gods along with the Lady of the Lake, but that might not count.

The Orcs have two gods Gork, the god of cunning brutality and Mork, the god of brutal cunning. Or possibly the other way around. Wars have been started by Orcs arguing which is which , but that hardly counts as a pantheon a couple of other gods, such as Bork and Khalekk have been mentioned in the older background, but they probably aren't canon anymore. Interestingly, the Ogres, who worship the Great Maw, seem to be the only truly monotheistic race. The Skaven have only one official god as well: the Horned Rat.

It was a deity strongly associated with Chaos, though it wasn't part of the "true" pantheon, possibly existing only as a minor Chaos god. This until Slaanesh disappeared, and the Horned Rat took over the vacancy. Some Skaven worship the other Chaos gods, but this is considered blasphemous and anyone caught doing so is destined for an excruciatingly painful death. Fantastic Racism : Warhammer has its share of speciesism and prejudice. People from the Empire are horrifically prejudiced about Dwarfs, Halflings and Elves as well as humans not from the Empire, humans from different provinces in the Empire Anything else will pretty much get attacked on sight.

On the other hand Dwarfs consider humans to be soft and incompetent and elves to be treacherous and arrogant magic-using bastards. Elves have racism within the three different factions, each hating each other to various degrees though the worst is between the Dark and High elves in addition to considering any other race to be little more than animals or at best primitive barbarians that can be manipulated and tricked with little remorse.

On the human-to-human side, Imperials and other southern humans fear and despise the Norscans due to them being frothing Chaos-worshipping barbarians intent on slaughter and conquest. The Norscans, conversely, see all non-Norscans as weaklings and sissies who worship impotent gods barely worth thinking about. Indeed, Sigmar and Myrmidia are not even things to be hated in the unholy north, rather they are just as openly heckled and ridiculed as their worshippers. It's in fact so bad in Norsca that 'southling' is actually a fairly serious insult there. Then there's the Hung, whom even the Norscans consider to be bastards.

Even within the Empire there's a lot of prejudice. Reiklanders are all puffed-up, effete snobs. Nordlanders are all more-or-less half-Norscan, wolf-worshipping savages. Marienburgers are treacherous and greedy, penny-pinching bastards. Averlanders are Stirlanders are inbred country bumpkins who drown cats for entertainment and drink their ale hot. The Halflings of Mootland, when people actually acknowledge they exist , treat them as natural thieves or argue the Mad God Ranald made them as a bizarre joke.

Fate Worse than Death : If they are lucky, Elven souls are typically enslaved by the goddess Ereth Khial, the Pale Queen, and sentenced to eternal torment in Mirai, the black pit, upon death. Many Elven souls, however, are devoured by by the Chaos god of depravity after suffering soul-shredding torments. The High Elves attempt to avoid this fate by binding their souls to the Waystones that protect their homelands, while the Wood Elves allow their spirits to be claimed by the forest.

The Dark Elves by contrast consider "preparing to die" as "planning to fail", their only hope is to never die. Fauns and Satyrs : Beastmen, though the emphasis is much more on the beast than the man, are this in appearance. Fearless Undead : On the tabletop, otherwise the whole army would flee at the sight of itself. Fertile Feet : A rare evil example; the one character with this trait is a Champion of Tzeentch named Aekold Hellbrass.

It's a side effect of a mutation called "Breath of Life", which renders the Champion a walking repository of life energy. Fictional Disability : Teclis is the greatest mage the Elves have ever produced and one of the greatest mages in world history. He is also a ridiculously Squishy Wizard , requiring healing potions just to stay alive, and having a limp uncurable by magic. By contrast, his brother Tyrion is an unpeered swordmaster. In early editions, Warhammer 40, was set in the far future of Warhammer Fantasy , but they now exist in separate realities linked by the Warp, and 40K 's Earth is now our far future.

The neighboring Kingdom of Bretonnia is resolutely stuck in the kind of pre-modern chivalric warfare seen in King Arthur tales to the point where ranged weapons like bows and trebuchets are considered fit only for peasant levies , but the Lady's magic allows their knights to be highly resistant to firearms. It's been implied the Lady is actually a Wood Elf deliberately hindering Bretonnian technological progress to ensure they remain as unwitting meat shields around their forests. The Bretonnian navy, on the other hand, is the most powerful in the world due to their enthusiastic adoption of cannon the issue of them being unchivalrous weapons is irrelevant to the navy as guns only aren't allowed on Bretonnian soil , and the harbor cities and some border towns are trying to take the more pragmatic option of using guns to defend themselves.

Fireballs : The signiture spell of the lore of fire, which means any user of the law can take it without rolling or swap it for one of their rolled spells. Storm of magic takes this Up to Eleven with the spell fireball barrage. Later editions of the game indicate that there is some manner of underwater civilization that controls sea monsters but whether these are related to the fish men of early editions who were often said to live in the submerged caverns beneath Naggaroth is unknown. The Flame of Life : The Sacred Flame of Ulric is an eternally burning flame in the city of Middenheim, legends saying that so long as it burned, the city and its people would endure.

During Warhammer: The End Times , the flame is sapped off its power and goes out; things turn really south in Middenheim afterwards. Flamethrower Backfire : A skaven warpfire thrower has a good chance to explode violently on any malfunction. Fleur de Lis : The emblem of Bretonnia, naturally. Eating the heart of a powerful beast, for example, allows them to strengthen their allies, while eating the entrails of a Troll allows them to give a nearby unit a Healing Factor and consuming a victim's brain can project the unfortunate's nightmares into the minds of the Butcher's foes. Food Chain of Evil : Dread maws, a species of burrowing worm-like monsters, are entirely capable of devouring large and powerful creatures such as dragons or chimeras, which they take down by burrowing directly into their bodies and devouring them from the inside out.

Magma dragons favor large, powerful monsters such as chimeras and manticores as prey. They will go after humanoids as well, but these are rarely large or numerous enough to be worth the effort. Forged by the Gods : The Chaos Gods sometimes grant their mortal or daemonic servants powerful weapons although usually their forging is done by daemons, not the gods themselves. Vaul, the forge god of Warhammer 's High Elves, forged at least one magic sword.

Well, except for Skaven. Their generals will only be on the frontline if the frontline's entirely eroded away and they couldn't escape. Frog Men : the toad-like Slaan. Full-Boar Action : Deployed by the Orcs as heavy cavalry, compared to the light wolf cavalry used by the goblins. Functional Magic : Runs the whole gamut. Green Rocks : Warpstone, as used by the Skaven. Magitek : Dwarf Runesmithing. Religion Is Magic : most of the races, to some degree or other, but especially the Ogres.

Rule Magic : how it all plays out in-game. Vancian Magic : the Empire; Necromancers. Gadgeteer Genius : The Empire, Dwarfs and Skaven all utilised these, with the first two called engineers, with the skaven ones being called warplock engineers. They allow these armies to have the impressive, powerful and hopefully reliable firepower they can muster Gaiden Game : Mordheim and Warmaster respectively. And Blood Bowl , which is Warhammer where all the battles are replaced by extraordinarily violent American Football games.

Gallows Humor : Ubiquitous throughout the setting, but especially with regards to the greenskins, and the Skaven at second place. Gambit Roulette : Tzeentch is the schemer of the gods. He exists to do nothing but scheme and change; in fact, victory for him would be the end as there would be nothing left to scheme about. Furthermore, all of his schemes are mutually exclusive, and every minor victory for him is also a one minor defeat. The Daemons' army book suggests Tzeentch is just messing with everyone, and most of his huge elaborate plots aren't meant to achieve anything but to just be there, the same as Khorne's murders and Nurgle's plagues. It may well be that Giant Animal Worship : The Great Maw is a gigantic, tooth-lined hole in the ground worshiped by the ogres, who regularly bring it sacrifices of food and in return are granted Gut magic, which has different effects based on what the caster ate.

Giant Flyer : Dragons, wyverns, hippogriffs, griffons, manticores, Terrorgheists dragon-sized zombie bats , phoenixes and about a third of your Scroll of Binding options in Storm of Magic. Giant Spider : Orcs and goblins use these as steeds. The trope reaches its awesome apex with the Arachnarok Spider, which is the biggest model in the game. Lightning quick and can deliver tremendous blows — almost as efficient as the Bretonnian knights. Not as durable, though, but have better initiative in combat. Most war machines can also cause outright havoc, especially among enemy monsters, but will crumble if anyone even looks at them in close combat. Frenzied elves empowered by the god of the hunt riding huge stags and bearing armor-piercing spears, the Wild Riders hit like a ton of bricks on a charge, with masses of high-strength, high-initiative attacks that virtually always hit first God Couple : Morr and Verena.

Asuryan and Lileath, Kurnous and Isha. Ptra and Meru. Grungni and Grimnir and Valaya. God of Evil : The Chaos Gods. Khorne is a murderous, bloodthirsty brute who sees the weak and feeble as suckers with no rights, Tzeentch is a double-crossing, two-faced schemer who likes to toy with his followers for fun, Nurgle is pleasant and Obliviously Evil but still reduces anyone his diseases touch to corpulent sacks of rotting flesh at best and Slaanesh is a hedonistic, torture-loving sex fiend. They openly encourage their followers to be just like them, and their end goals include destroying the entire world. While not generally malevolent, the gods of the Old World are generally too apathetic to be considered benevolent by any definition of the word.

Solkan is the Knight Templar exception. They are also implied to be somewhat weaker then the Chaos Gods, as they rely on more complicated concepts for their worship and power, whereas the Chaos Gods have VERY broad, very universal, and very negative concepts empowering them. Ever since his ascension Nagash fits the bill to a tee. He devoured Usirian, the original God of the Afterlife, to become a god and has razed his birth country of Khemri to the ground in retaliation for Settra's refusal. Unlike the Chaos Gods, who could be considered misunderstood on a good day, Nagash has proven that he has nary a shred of morality or goodness in his undead bones since his mortal days even before he became undead.

Who is a malevolent being that wants his underlings to overrun the world and devour the souls of all mortals. And doesn't care weather if they are from the Skaven or the other races. The Gods Must Be Lazy : Averted in that several times gods have intervened to save their people, generally by creating an avatar , usually to fight the forces of Chaos. The only reason the world still exists is the first chaos invasion was stopped when Aenarion was granted divine power. The Lizardman god Sotek appeared out of nowhere to protect them from the Skaven. What was probably the god Sigmar reborn fought the Chaos champion Archaon, the result of which was Averted to hell by Nagash, which is very bad news for everyone involved as he wants to not only usurp the Chaos Gods, but also to turn the entire world into an undead paradise, with him effectively being the divine dictator.

If it wasn't for Teclis's gambit, it likely would have happened. The books are not called "The End Times" for nothing. They're still assholes. Thankfully the High Elves have less of the causal nuttiness the Melnibonean's had, mostly because the Dark Elves have it covered. The Lizardmen were the first to fight Chaos; they are the true reason that Chaos can hardly leave the wastes. Pretty good, right? Their leaders the Slann are actively trying to shift the world back to its pure untainted state, and no cost is too high for them to pay if it thwarts the ruinous powers. The Lizardmen will eat sentient bipeds, lobotomize them and use them as slaves, and their opinion on almost every sentient race is that of a pest exterminator finding cockroaches in their own house.

When they made the first and so far only step to fixing the world, it reduced the Dwarf people to a shadow of a fraction of themselves; the Slann don't know this happened, but if they did they would be apathetically apologetic at how dumb the dwarfs were being for living where an inland sea should be. When he killed the Count, every woman watching started cheering. The Champion felt strangely pleased, and left the town standing. Although their choice of clothing is white and they are on the side of good, they are quite condescending towards other races. Green Rocks : Warpstone sometimes known as wyrdstone is solidified raw magic and exposure to it can produce unpredictable effects.

Random mutations are the most common result of warpstone exposure but beneficial effects, such as the boosting of magical power, are also possible. Whatever the results, however, insanity is almost guaranteed. Pretty dark, too, since there's a hole to the equivalent of Hell at the north pole. Norsca and the Kurgan realms are similarly just as bad, because they're the closest to this place. The most over-the-top example of this trope ever. Guns Akimbo : Models armed with a brace of pistols, such as Empire Pistoliers, have the Multiple Shots 2 special rule meaning that they are able to fire both their weapons at the same target, albeit with a -1 To Hit penalty.

Half-Witted Hillbilly : Comes in two main varieties in Warhammer Fantasy : Imperial peasants do tend to be isolated and illiterate as expected of medieval society , and the more isolated villages are often targets of Chaos cults thank to their ignorance. Brettonian peasants are extremely stupid and childlike, at least according to their overlords. Of course, illiteracy and ignorance are also endemic among the lower classes as well.

Hamster-Wheel Power : Skaven doomwheels are war machines that are propelled by Rat Ogres running in wheels. They are a One-Gender Race of winged female humanoids living as scavengers and snatchers. The issue of beautiful vs ugly Harpies comes to a head since they are depicted as attractive but only from the belly up to the neck as a "parody of a woman's body". Past versions of the models have presented them as only vaguely humanoid and not in the least attractive. Hate Sink : Konrad von Carstein, the son of Vlad von Carstein, is the highly incompetent and most infamously mad member of the bloodline.

All good looks take time. On the issue of ablutions, I once designed a gig at the palace of Versailles, and asked about how they went about this. The curator told me that they often popped their butts out the windows! Staff below cleaned up! But apparently the royals and more senior people had the luxury of pots. How things have changed! What was this for? The Versailles gig was part of an international corporate festival I did back in the 90s, it was a masked ball for a few thousand people, all dressed in 18th century gowns etc down in the orangerie. Loads of fun…and a huge amount of work! I understand that some very ginger negotiations were had to hold the event at Versailles, apparently it was the first event of its type to be held at the palace since the revolution took place.

The French had huge respect for the place, so I understood their concern. Fortunately, they were happy with the results! I personally had no problem with them, concerned as they were, they were very accommodating. I have read several books that actually described how badly cities like London smelled in the summer because the people would empty their chamber pots out their windows and into the street. Hence the tradition of the more wealthy taking summer haunts out in the country! Also read where poor women who would be working in the fields could and did lift their skirts and squat. But that was medieval society not the s! Castles used rushes so people could alleviate themselves during very very long dinners without having to leave!

They were later just swept out the door and new rushes put down. Body odor would still have been overwhelming even with an occasional sponge bath. I learned in an art history class in college where Napoleon wrote to Josephine he would be arriving in two weeks and not to bath! Most times the wealthy would drench themselves in perfume to cover the body odor! Also the wigs were made to stand up like they did using animal fat if I remember correctly so ewww!

Rancid fat, body odor, and heavy perfumes! Very interesting!!!! Why are people so, so VERY adamant that the past must have been filthy and that people in the past obviously had no sense of smell? Sure, early modern cities probably stank, at least in places, and were certainly far from what a modern person would consider hygienic. I can conceive that at least the men might have peed in some less-than-ideal places perhaps even indoors at least occasionally probably whilst drunk. Modern hikers today do a very similar thing. Those are such rare survivals as it is. About the Versailles thing, who was the curator you spoke with who told you they pooped out of windows and what department were they curator of? Apparently there were built in bathtubs and rudimentary toilets that were serviced from an extremely large tank.

From the point of view of the user bath-taker , it apparently worked very similarly to running water. Hi Teresa, no — I don;t wear the stays. Although, after years, they are still probably strong enough to actually be worn, they are in such good nick. A pillow body allows me to see how the garment appears three-dimentially as though it was on a body, without the stress it would endure by being laced on a real body. For the record, the s stays have a French Canadian provenance, although the possibility of the stays actually being made inside France cannot be ruled out. They are linen stays, missing its CF busk, which was probably made of timber. Who knows? The corset is extremely well made, impressively so.

But she was a curator, not a tour guide. I have to say my focus at the time was more on the space I was working with, as well as the textiles mostly furnishings that were scattered about the place. Pit dunnies are a very old concept, I would think they would have existed in one format or another on the grounds in the 18th century. I like to keep an open mind :. The Museum of Menstruation does have some cool info, especially on the history of sanitary products and pictures of same.

However, the guy that runs the website is a jerk who makes huuuuuge leaps of extrapolation and is nasty when you email him with corrections and factual citations. For instance he posits that if women in one country were doing something in one era, they must ALL have been doing it. And thanks for the heads up about the MoM guy. Even fairly poor families might still host an apprentice or parish dependent. And while it might take skill and finesse to achieve a high-fashion silhouette when dressing for a special occasion, one-handed lacing would probably be totally fine for average social acceptability, especially taking into account adjusting for pregnancy, breastfeeding, or old age.

Instructions are included for their construction in layers and a seeming belt to tie them next to the body. A rebuttal to your grossly over-reactive piece: 1. No underwear — Terry Dresbach was referring to panties, which is what those of us from the West Coast of the US call underwear. You already said she was correct about this, so why it is the 1 item in your list is baffling. Most, however, did not bathe — take immersion baths — with any frequency unless affluent, etc. Again, nothing wrong with what she said. What Terry said is consistent with that, meaning merely: they did not have Feminine Hygiene Products like Tampons or panty shields no panties, see 1.

While sea sponges were available as imported items in larger seaports, it is unlikely most women in the Scottish Highlands would have had ready access to them. Menstrual blood smell — bodies smelled very differently then, as did menstrual blood, for the simple reason of point 2, plus no antibiotics to kill off the beneficial bacteria: the human micro-biome was radically different. Female scents throughout cultures and histories have often been considered erotic, and menstrual blood smells were probably not unpleasant.

People in the Scottish Highlands when out in the woods and wild did do their business whenever and wherever as do I while hiking and camping here in the 21st C. When in buildings, there were chamberpots and privies enabling the same. Before you over-react in future, take a deep breath, and check in with your knee-jerk-negatively-judging mind to see if it might perhaps be Missing Something. Have you been to Scotland? Have you studied the history? Maybe the very poor did, or soldiers on campaign or people traveling. But people with homes, whether crofters or the wealthy with their castles like Dunrobin and Scone, had specific places to collect bodily waste, just as Sarah noted. Fine, nice that you agree, but you neednt take such a knee-jerk-negatively-judging tone about it ;-.

You both miss the points, sadly. And yes, I have been to the Scotland, Highlands, Lowlands, and cities. Try not to extrapolate one totally different modern experience to a specific historical experience, kthx. While I agree with you, just one wee point. Scotland was far more densely wooded pre clearances. The landscape changed considerably with sheep farming in the 19th century. I wish I had kept the source, as I remember it every time this idea of undergarments arises. They looked much like a tie on bikini bottom. I shake my head to think historians find women so inept that they could not invent something to contain their bodily fluids. Women may not have been given rights to read or hold land anywhere, but they certainly were not stupid.

Mostly for the sake of anyone coming back to this later and reading it. The above comment is a garbled memory of the Lengberg finds. For more information, look up Beatriz Nutz, the archaeologist who has investigated most of the Lengberg finds and has published articles about them. The University of Innsbruk where Ms. Nutz studies and the finds are being analysed also has stuff on their website about these finds. One of the lovely ladies at the Margaret Hunter shop in Colonial Williamsburg is currently setting out on a project to treat her hair with purely period methods for the year, I believe, and she has found that it keeps her hair very healthy indeed and not at all foul-smelling haha.

I recently participated in a historical fashion parade. Due to traffic nightmares I had to do a quick change. Love this post! Thanks for this article. Terry is keen to quote secondary sources like websites and a thesis which can be disproven just as easily. It seems that you are making an important confusion here, mixing up the practices of rural populations and the general habits of west-european nobility.

Realize, for instance, that there were period of times during the reign of Louis XV when the average quantity of available water per capita in Paris was a half-liter including water used for cooking. Now, I have not heard about the movie you refer to, and wether it addresses the life of nobility or of commoners. But if we are talking rich and educated people, then you seem to be the one who is off here. You can check the important work of Georges Vigarello for instance, who has focused for decades on the history of body representations in Europe from the Middle-Ages and on. Because I said exactly that- that full emersion bathing was NOT done on a regular basis. That sponge baths, using a towel and a small amount of water -if any- were far more common for pretty much all of Western history prior to widespread indoor plumbing.

Thank you for your clear explanations Sarah. Since I concentrate more on 19th cent. Municipal water supplies, water and sewage treatment, the understanding of disease vectors, germ theory, refrigeration, sterilization, etc. And we should not forget times and places. I know people who saw men and women squatting to defecate in the gutter of a public street as a matter of course in Japan in , and there is plenty of evidence that the streets of London were at times pretty foul in the 18th century. Archaeology here in Virginia show that farmhouse were often surrounded by accumulations of garbage. Every account I have read by a World War I veteran records his observation of the huge and treasured manure pile that stood in front of every farmhouse door.

People knew the benefits of cleanliness three centuries ago, and strove for it as best they could, but by our standards, things were often quite unsanitary, and sometimes appallingly so. This is well documented. She also never said it took 20 minutes to lace a corset in the 18th century, just that it did in the scene as it was filmed, causing the full scene to be over 30 minutes in length. Again, it is well known that in large public areas and palaces etc, people pissed in corners.

Especially when drink was involved, which it often was as water was considered unhealthy… Because people tended to dump sewage into water. Instead of posting a blog ripping someone for posting generalizations without specifics, perhaps, ask a question or two of the author. Common courtesy goes a long way. Except she did say those things when people spoke up in the comments contradicting her assertions with factual evidence that disproved her claims.

I love your article! Which, in my opinion, is not what it should be. Women, in the past, would have had to have something to contain their menstrual discharges. They would not have soiled, possibly their only change of clothes, so disgustingly. It seems to me that they would have wanted to remain clean and comfortable just as we do today. Without the entire information how is the average reader able to gain the full perspective. And yes, to the statement of relieving oneself. They would have gone in the woods just as we would do now if that was all that was available. Terry seems to have left that information out of her researched historical article too.

Newspapers are generally written on a 6th grade American reading level. When I read scholarly, researched articles I prefer to get complete, accurate information that I can turn to for reference. Terry has obviously greatly failed to supply this type of fully accurate historical information. To that means, thank you so much Sarah Lorraine for your clarification on several misleading and slightly distorted inaccuracies. Hi — great post, but can I offer a small corrective to the sewers point, at least in London, which I know a bit about. Most decent homes in 18C had simple privies — little more than an outhouse with a seat over a hole in the ground.

But that hole drained into a cesspool, periodically emptied by night-soil men. No way of proving it, but a reasonable chance these were used during menstruation. Hi Lee, thanks for the info! The one thing I vividly remember being amazed by was the rows of giant hollowed out tree trunks that were labeled sewage pipes I think dating from the 17th c. I was so fascinated by the technology available at the time. Do you have a publication date yet? Very much about the lives of the poor, and some overlooked aspects of daily life. Just to give a 20th century spin on the discussion — my mother was born in and was living in Los Angeles when she began to menstruate. Her older sister helped gather the rags she would need for her period and for several years she as did her sisters used rags rather than the very newly introduced Kotex.

It was the Depression and even though the family was solid working class despite the economic crisis my grandfather did not lose his job buying sanitary pads was beyond their budget. So the girls each washed their rags each month and hung them on the enclosed back porch to dry. So KUDOS to this post, and thanks for sounding our opinion, all of us of the same views, who look at movies as they SHOULD be, and not just a storyline some filmmaker of inexperienced historical background puts onto silver screen.

What people forget about menstruation in cultures with no birth control, is that women spent most of their adult life pregnant or breastfeeding a baby which stops menses in most women. They had what we see as astronomical numbers of children many of whom died young. A few rags and some moss on those very rare occasions probably did the trick. And yet dealing with period blood is still a commonplace, frequent, and very real issue for modern women in developing countries with no birth control…. Ahhh, so the person who runs the Museum of Menstruation is a man? Who would enjoy having blood sometimes clots run down their legs on a monthly basis — or less, if the woman was nursing. The thought of drying blood getting cold as the air breezes through it congealing and saturating the clothes— whatta mess.

Museum guy has never woken up to a flood in his bed. Who would just bleed into clothing, mattresses yeah, try cleaning those , furniture, rugs…? Have any stained dresses shown up in portraits, paintings, or illustrations? We have artistic documentation of bloodletting, trepanning, but not women bleeding into dresses? If it was so natural and commonplace, why is there no visual representation of it? One thing to point out: way back when, women sewed. They sewed a lot. They tatted, they knitted, they crocheted, embroidered, quilted had sewing circles with their lady pals. They made samplers to showcase their stitching prowess. Schools were devoted to young girls sewing. Women were clever and still are!!

How easy to just crochet chain a belt, add loops to a cloth, attach the two, and voila. Knitting was easy, quick, and portable. My grandmother used to hand-sew new elastic into her nylon briefs when the elastic was worn out to make them last longer. As someone else pointed out, clothing was expensive. Not only was it expensive, it was time-consuming to make. Folks especially children wore hand-me-downs, or repurposed their clothing… my grandmother had a rag basket, from old scraps of cloth for cleaning and odd jobs. Nothing was thrown away back then— she also had a sewing basket of scraps -the smallest fabric remnant could be used in a crazy quilt.

What was a big-seller in the mid-late s when it debuted? A Singer sewing machine. How many of our grandmothers had one? Having one meant you could customize clothes and make all kinds of neat things. Many of the old houses had birthing rooms that were later remodeled into other rooms. Also in the family homestead was a clothes boiler, which was built into the side of a chimney. It was quite high-tech for the late s. The bottom compartment was for the wood to burn to boil the water. It was a PIA to wash clothes not to mention dangerous, with boiling water, and sometimes lye , and to wash bulky petticoats vs a small menstrual cloth? What would you choose to wash, petticoats, or a small cloth? You might also have diapers to launder… oh and put up dried fruits, can or stockpile vegetables half the year was spent prepping for the winter , air out mattresses, quilts, chase after children, plan meals without benefit of refrigeration, maintain the fire for the beehive oven, milk the cow, gather the eggs, bring in firewood, maybe chop firewood, fill the oil lamps, sweep the floors, etc.

All that happened in my family homestead, and in so many others. Having a cleanish method of collecting your menstrual flow would have just made all the other things in their busy lives so much easier. Would you want to think about having to mop up your blood everywhere, when you had a ton of other stuff to do? Probably pointless to reply to an old post, but this seems to be the place for this. Whatever personal sanitary measures the French nobility might take, the fact remains that there was only ONE privy closet in Versailles, and that was reserved for the King.

But many others, according to several sources, relieved themselves behind the curtains, on the stairways, and just about any other place, in at least one instance over a balcony rail, much to the detriment of those below. Palace staff must have all been nose-blind. Maybe the guests were, too. Nyet, I say with love! My mom and grandmother, who both grew up in a rural farm area, both said they used old cut up linen or cotton rags from old sheets or towels during their periods, which they would pin into their undergarments and wash for re-use. In fact, I believe the Amish still do this if they cannot afford modern sanitary pads. We had an outdoor john until I was 10 years old, had a well for water, raised our own food-both animal and vegetable-and took Saturday baths, changing the bathwater as it got too dirty for the next bather.

Our house had no insulation, and getting up to wash and brush our teeth out at the basin by the well in the Winter taught us to get ready for school very quickly. The dresses they wore at home were shapeless dresses with yokes and puff sleeves to the elbow, given shape by a belt or by the aprons they wore over them. I remember clean, embroidered aprons were worn to church by the older ladies. To the delight of all us kids, she could pee standing out in the cornfield and never wet her dress. Mom tried it once, and had to go back to the house to clean up. Menstrual rags were tied in place, sometimes padded with clean handsful of neps, the pilled and unspinnable clumps of spinning fibers, Baths were once a week, except for some of the old people who believed that bathing in Winter would cause pneumonia.

In between baths, they washed in a basin of cold water, rinsing off with another basin of cold water. They said, one day they washed down as far as possible; the next day they washed up as far as possible, then the third day, they washed possible. My great-great-grandfather shaved in the Spring. My great-great-grandmother quit washing her hair after getting pneumonia one Winter after washing her hair. After that, she used a homemade dry shampoo made of very fine sawdust, mixed with dried herbs and flowers. My grandmother said her hair was never oily, and always smelled like Spring.

We had a lot of wool clothing, but archeologists will be disappointed that there were none of the wool fabrics left for them to find and theorize over; worn out wool garments were cut down to fit the children, used for patches, then the shredded scraps finally were burned for gnat smokes in the evenings. So, or years from now, archeologists will probably not believe my mother had a nice brown wool coat, or that I had some very itchy socks. With in depth research via private journals and letters from the above periods respectively, I discovered some very enlightening facts, which made perfect sense. Too many historians of the past were of the male gender and provided a very narrow perspective on female needs and their general sense and sensibility all things fashion and bare necessities.

But since women stepped up to the podium in the mid 19th century with base facts, knowledge of the past has changed somewhat. In rural areas the poor bathed in streams, rivers and again wash tubs, even animal troughs. How can you expect any accuracy in a film related to her, when her research can not even turn up the most basic of Scottish recipes? Except a stovie is a STEW, and you could try and get that crisp, and crumbly for ten and a half centuries, and not achieve that result.

I know. I worked 12 years in hotels from Edinburgh to Thurso, Inverness to Ayr, and all in between, and made stovies at them all. Thanks for your article. I know Versailles and many old castles : there are toilettes inside, and lots of bathroom in Versailles! Whenever someone brings up an historical urban legend, or whatever we want to term this nonsense, I always ask them how it makes them feel. These urban legends always have a point to make, not about the past, but about the present. The point of this nonsense is that we have thing so much better than our ancestors did. Thank god there is someone out there doing the research.

Thank you for easing my mind! So, thank you for making it easy for me to convince my friend to read the books! I can also tell you that I grew up in Russia, where, in many ways, life stood still until Communism fell in the s, especially in the rural areas. One might say it was like a window into days past. This included hot coals, boiling water, steam, scrubbing, and therapeutic beating with a broom of vines, which is really like a phenomenal deep tissue massage and skin exfoliation. This was done on a weekly basis. On a daily basis, there was a basin in every hut where one would wash ones undercarriage and feet nightly.

I highly recommend it the banya. So, the bleeding all over the place is false. And I find it fascinating that in many ways women were so much freer before the 19th century where everyone got buttoned up and stayed that way until well after the second world war…. In , tsar Peter the Great returned to Russia from education abroad in Western Europe, namely Germany, and built himself a city and within it, a palace. St Petersburg, and the Winter Palace. As a girl, I used to tour this with my parents. I specifically recall that the palace had installed toilets with pulldown tank serviced by a larger tank of the type still used up until the s?

He must have learned that somewhere — in Western Europe, I presume. Ah, lord. It was made of linen and had tufts of quilting stitched between the two layers. When I showed it to my then year old grandmother, she recognized it immediately. The bloodstains helped.

Do Respect In Nursing seriously believe that Black Student Movement Case Study were cool with staining their good linen chemises and petticoats, not to mention the unwashable woolen outerwear. The Tomb Kings also have this in a way, the Blessing of the Asp stops modifiers from affecting the rolls. In How Did The People Treat The Commoners Before The French Revolution to have a bed-sized piece of ngatu, quite a few strips must be glued together. Morghur How Did The People Treat The Commoners Before The French Revolution able to induce this in anything that comes How Did The People Treat The Commoners Before The French Revolution him.

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